Data Sources#


The National Exposure Information System (NEXIS) 2020 release from Geoscience Australia was parsed into the Global Exposure Model format.


The residential exposure model for Fiji was developed from the 2017 Population and Housing Census, released from the Fiji Bureau of Statistics, while the Industrial and Commercial exposure models are based on information from the 2015-2016 Employment and Unemployment Survey.

New Caledonia#

The exposure model is based on the 2014 census, released by the Institut de la statistique et des études écnonomiques Nouvelle-Calédonie.

New Zealand#

The exposure model for New Zealand was developed as part of RiskScape and shared with GEM by GNS Science. The original model includes the location, replacement value, number of storeys, structural type, construction date (i.e. building code era) and construction quality (i.e. with or without structural deficiencies) of each building. See King & Bell (2009) for further information. The replacement values of the original model were updated by GNS Science to 2021 estimates, and the occupancy of each building is classsified as residential or non-residential.

Papua New Guinea#

The information in the 2011 National Population and Housing Census was used to develop the exposure model for PNG.

US territories (American Samoa, Guam and Northern Mariana Islands)#

The exposure model for the three US territories is based on the 2010 census, published by the U.S. Census Bureau. The replacement costs were adjusted to 2021 values based on the inflation of each country.

Other countries#

For the remaining countries in Oceania (Cook Islands, Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Niue, Nauru, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu), the exposure database developed by the PCRAFI initiative (Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative) in 2011 were parsed into the Global Exposure Model format. The details of the exposure database are documented in the Summary Report of the Catastrophe Risk Assessment Methodology. In most cases, the replacement costs were adjusted from the original models to 2021 values based on the inflation of each country, and the number of buildings and households was updated according to the latest census of each country.


King, A.B., Bell, R.G. (Programme Managers). (2009). RiskScape Project: 2004 - 2008. NIWA Science Report 2009/75. 172p.