Data Sources#


The residential exposure model for Mongolia is based on the 2020 Population and housing census. The data includes information about:

  • Population by Bag/Khoroo

  • Number of households by Bag/Khoroo (Adm level 3)

  • Household by housing type (Ger, house or other) by Soum (Adm level 2)

  • Distribution of housing stock by construction material by Aimag (Adm level 1)

  • Market prices of different housing types

Information from other data sources was used to complement this information: Tumurbaatar et al (2022) and Dorjpalam et al (2004) have data for Ulaanbaatar on the distribution and characteristics of building materials and structures. The information on Purev and Hagishima (2020) was used to infer the distribution of geometries, areas and structural properties of gers.

The industrial and commercial exposure models were developed using the information from the Establishment Census (2016) and from the Report of Labour Force Survey (2020).


The primary data source for residential data in Russia was the 2019 Census. Individual statistical tables were extracted using ROSSTAT, including:

  • Distribution of housing stock by wall materials (2019)

  • Average apartment size in residential buildings (2020)

  • Average construction cost per square meter of residential buildings (2020)

  • Estimated population per region (2021)

Additionally, information from the 2010 Census was used to map buildings constructed with a given wall material to construction years.

In addition to the national statistics (2019), data from Compass International (2020) was used to infer unit costs of construction.


Tumurbaatar Z, Miura H, Tsamba T (2022) “Development of Building Inventory Data in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia for Seismic Loss Mongolia for Seismic Loss Estimation”, ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 11, 26.

Dorjpalam S, Kawase H, Ho N (2004) “Earthquake disaster simulation for Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia based on the field survey and numerical modeling of masonry buildings”, 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, B.C., Canada

Purev U, Hagishima A (2020) “A Field Survey of Traditional Nomadic Dwelling Gers Used as Urban Habitats in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia” EVERGREEN Joint Journal of Novel Carbon Resource Sciences & Green Asia Strategy, Vol. 07, Issue 02, pp155-171