Data Sources#

Detailed national datasets were used to develop the mapping schemes. For the three countries different methodologies were followed. Where possible, information on the typical construction materials were recorded separately for urban and rural settlements at the subnational level.


Further technical details about the Canadian exposure model are available in Journeay et al. (2022).


For the residential model, the 2020 Population and Housing Census was used, which is available at:

For the commercial and industrial models, the 2021 Enterprise Directory (DENUE) was used, which is available at:

United States#

The distribution of the residential, commercial, and industrial building stock throughout the country were taken from the US Army Corp of Engineer’s (USACE) National Structure Inventory (NSI). Information regarding the typical construction practices (materials, design year) from HAZUS-MH (FEMA 2017) were integrated as well.


FEMA, Federal Emergency Management Agency (2017). FEMA P-366: Hazus® Estimated Annualized Earthquake Losses for the United States.

Journeay, M., LeSueur, P., Chow, W., Wagner, C.L. (2022). Physical exposure to natural hazards in Canada: An overview of methods and findings. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA, OPEN FILE 8892.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. National Structure Inventory (2023).