Design regulations#

Seismic design standards and regulations in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) were common to the entire territory until the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. During the USRR, seismic zonation maps were compiled and upgraded in 1937, 1957, 1968, and 1978 (Mavlyanova 2019). In the first code (PSP), design of buildings was based on static theory. Seismic design according to dynamic theory was introduced in the codes SNiP II-A.l2-62 and SNiP II-A.l2-69. (Imanbekov et al., 1999)

After different seismic events highlighted deficiencies in the seismic hazard zonations and weaknesses in the seismic response of buildings, each independent state developed and implemented their own building codes and national seismic maps.

In Tajikistan, the Anti-Seismic Construction Code was approved in 2007, and in 2019 a new edition of norms and standards for Seismic Resistant Construction (SNiP RT 22-07-2018) was adopted. (Amindoza, 2019)

In Uzbekistan, the KMK 2.01.02-96 document “Norms and Regulations for Construction in Seismic Zones”, approved by the government in 1996, introduced several changes to the previous design and construction regulations and updated seismic zonation maps and information on earthquake recurrence. (Rashidov et al, 1996)

The first updated seismic building code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, entitled Construction in Seismic Regions (SNiP), was issued in 1998. This document was further revised in 2001 and 2006, to increase the seismic safety of new buildings. Since this date, there has been an intent to transition to the European design approach. In 2017, a new document was introduced (SP RK 2.03-3-2017), which combines general requirements of the Eurocode with the previous design regulations in place. (Zhanabayeva et al, 2023)

Since 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic has constantly updated their building codes, in particular the ones related with seismic evaluation and design. The current seismic design code of the country (SN KR 20-02:2018) “Earthquake Engineering. Seismic Design Code” was issued in 2018.

For Turkmenistan, it was not possible to find official information about the current building codes, although some references were found to updates in the seismic zoning of the country (Agayeva, 2012) and to the adoption of new building codes in 2021.


Mavlyanova, Nadira. “Contemporary Seismic Code of Russia and Other Countries of Former Soviet Union.” In Conference of the Arabian Journal of Geosciences, pp. 215-217. Springer, Cham, 2019.

Amindoza P “Major areas of seismic safety of education facilities in Tajikistan” Safe and Improved Education Environment, Central-Asian Regional Forum, Bishkek City, 2019

Rashidov T, Plotnikova L, Khakimov S “Seismic Hazard and Building Vulnerability in Uzbekistan”, Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Earthquake Risk Management Strategies for Post-Soviet Central Asian Republics, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 1996

Zhanabayeva A, Moon SW, Ocheme JI, Shokbarov Y, Khomyakov V, Kim J, Satyanaga A “Comparative Analysis of Seismic Design Codes for Shallow Foundations Adhering to the Kazakhstani and European Approaches” Sustainability, 2023, 15, 615.

Agayeva LA “Major factors, defining seismic hazard of Turkmenistan” Proceedings of the international conference on “Complexity in earthquake dynamics: From nonlinearity to earthquake prediction and seismic stability”, 2012

Imanbekov S, Uranova S, Iwan W (1999) “Earthquake Resistance of multi-storey residential buildings in Central Asian capital cities.”, Seismic Hazard and Building Vulnerability in Post-Soviet Central Asian Republics, 45-65, Kluwer Academic Publishers