openquake.hazardlib package

Subpackages

contexts

class openquake.hazardlib.contexts.BaseContext[source]

Bases: object

Base class for context object.

class openquake.hazardlib.contexts.ContextMaker(trt, gsims, param=None, monitor=<Monitor [ubuntu]>)[source]

Bases: object

A class to manage the creation of contexts for distances, sites, rupture.

REQUIRES = ['DISTANCES', 'SITES_PARAMETERS', 'RUPTURE_PARAMETERS']
add_rup_params(rupture)[source]

Add .REQUIRES_RUPTURE_PARAMETERS to the rupture

filter(sites, rupture)[source]

Filter the site collection with respect to the rupture.

Parameters
Returns

(filtered sites, distance context)

get_pmap(src, s_sites, rup_indep=True)[source]
Parameters
  • src – a hazardlib source

  • s_sites – the sites affected by it

Returns

the probability map generated by the source

get_pmap_by_grp(src_sites, src_mutex=False, rup_mutex=False)[source]
Parameters
  • src_sites – an iterator of pairs (source, sites)

  • src_mutex – True if the sources are mutually exclusive

  • rup_mutex – True if the ruptures are mutually exclusive

Returns

dictionaries pmap, rdata, calc_times

make_contexts(sites, rupture)[source]

Filter the site collection with respect to the rupture and create context objects.

Parameters
Returns

Tuple of two items: sites and distances context.

Raises

ValueError – If any of declared required parameters (site, rupture and distance parameters) is unknown.

class openquake.hazardlib.contexts.DistancesContext(param_dist_pairs=())[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.contexts.BaseContext

Distances context for ground shaking intensity models.

Instances of this class are passed into GroundShakingIntensityModel.get_mean_and_stddevs(). They are intended to represent relevant distances between sites from the collection and the rupture. Every GSIM class is required to declare what distance measures does it need. Only those required values are calculated and made available in a result context object.

roundup(minimum_distance)[source]

If the minimum_distance is nonzero, returns a copy of the DistancesContext with updated distances, i.e. the ones below minimum_distance are rounded up to the minimum_distance. Otherwise, returns the original DistancesContext unchanged.

exception openquake.hazardlib.contexts.FarAwayRupture[source]

Bases: Exception

Raised if the rupture is outside the maximum distance for all sites

class openquake.hazardlib.contexts.RupData(cmaker)[source]

Bases: object

A class to collect rupture information into an array

add(rup, src_id, sctx, dctx=None)[source]
from_srcs(srcs, sites)[source]
Returns

param -> array

class openquake.hazardlib.contexts.RuptureContext(param_pairs=())[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.contexts.BaseContext

Rupture calculation context for ground shaking intensity models.

Instances of this class are passed into GroundShakingIntensityModel.get_mean_and_stddevs(). They are intended to represent relevant features of a single rupture. Every GSIM class is required to declare what rupture parameters does it need. Only those required parameters are made available in a result context object.

get_probability_no_exceedance(poes)[source]

Compute and return the probability that in the time span for which the rupture is defined, the rupture itself never generates a ground motion value higher than a given level at a given site.

Such calculation is performed starting from the conditional probability that an occurrence of the current rupture is producing a ground motion value higher than the level of interest at the site of interest. The actual formula used for such calculation depends on the temporal occurrence model the rupture is associated with. The calculation can be performed for multiple intensity measure levels and multiple sites in a vectorized fashion.

Parameters

poes – 2D numpy array containing conditional probabilities the the a rupture occurrence causes a ground shaking value exceeding a ground motion level at a site. First dimension represent sites, second dimension intensity measure levels. poes can be obtained calling the :meth:`method <openquake.hazardlib.gsim.base.GroundShakingIntensityModel.get_poes>

temporal_occurrence_model = None
class openquake.hazardlib.contexts.SitesContext(slots=['vs30', 'vs30measured', 'z1pt0', 'z2pt5'], sitecol=None)[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.contexts.BaseContext

Sites calculation context for ground shaking intensity models.

Instances of this class are passed into GroundShakingIntensityModel.get_mean_and_stddevs(). They are intended to represent relevant features of the sites collection. Every GSIM class is required to declare what sites parameters does it need. Only those required parameters are made available in a result context object.

openquake.hazardlib.contexts.get_distances(rupture, mesh, param)[source]
Parameters
  • rupture – a rupture

  • mesh – a mesh of points or a site collection

  • param – the kind of distance to compute (default rjb)

Returns

an array of distances from the given mesh

openquake.hazardlib.contexts.get_num_distances(gsims)[source]
Returns

the number of distances required for the given GSIMs

const

Module openquake.hazardlib.const defines various constants.

class openquake.hazardlib.const.ConstantContainer[source]

Bases: object

Class that doesn’t support instantiation.

>>> ConstantContainer()
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
AssertionError: do not create objects ConstantContainer, use class properties instead
class openquake.hazardlib.const.IMC[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.const.ConstantContainer

The intensity measure component is the component of interest of ground shaking for an intensity measure.

AVERAGE_HORIZONTAL = 'Average horizontal'

Usually defined as the geometric average of the maximum of the two horizontal components (which may not occur at the same time).

GMRotD100 = 'Average Horizontal (GMRotD100)'

The geometric mean of the records rotated into the most adverse direction for the structure.

GMRotI50 = 'Average Horizontal (GMRotI50)'

An orientation-independent alternative to AVERAGE_HORIZONTAL. Defined at Boore et al. (2006, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 96, 1502-1511) and is used for all the NGA GMPEs.

GREATER_OF_TWO_HORIZONTAL = 'Greater of two horizontal'

The largest value obtained from two perpendicular horizontal components.

HORIZONTAL = 'Horizontal'

The horizontal component.

MEDIAN_HORIZONTAL = 'Median horizontal'

The median horizontal component.

PEAK_SRSS_HORIZONTAL = 'Peak square root of sum of squares of horizontals'

“the peak square root of the sum of squares of two orthogonal horizontal components in the time domain” p. 880 of Kanno et al. (2006, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 96, 879-897)

RANDOM_HORIZONTAL = 'Random horizontal'

A randomly chosen horizontal component.

RotD100 = 'Horizontal Maximum Direction (RotD100)'
RotD50 = 'Average Horizontal (RotD50)'

An orientation-independent alternative to AVERAGE_HORIZONTAL. Defined at Boore et al. (2006, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 96, 1502-1511) and is used for all the NGA GMPEs.

VECTORIAL = 'Square root of sum of squares of peak horizontals'

“Vectorial addition: a_V = sqrt(max|a_1(t)|^2 + max|a_2(t)|^2)). This means that the maximum ground amplitudes occur simultaneously on the two horizontal components; this is a conservative assumption.” p. 53 of Douglas (2003, Earth-Sci. Rev. 61, 43-104)

VERTICAL = 'Vertical'

The vertical component.

class openquake.hazardlib.const.StdDev[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.const.ConstantContainer

GSIM standard deviation represents ground shaking variability at a site.

INTER_EVENT = 'Inter event'

Standard deviation representing ground shaking variability within different events.

INTRA_EVENT = 'Intra event'

Standard deviation representing ground shaking variability within a single event.

TOTAL = 'Total'

Total standard deviation, defined as the square root of the sum of inter- and intra-event squared standard deviations, represents the total ground shaking variability, and is the only one that is used for calculating a probability of intensity exceedance (see openquake.hazardlib.gsim.base.GroundShakingIntensityModel.get_poes()).

class openquake.hazardlib.const.TRT[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.const.ConstantContainer

Container for constants that define some of the common Tectonic Region Types.

ACTIVE_SHALLOW_CRUST = 'Active Shallow Crust'
GEOTHERMAL = 'Geothermal'
INDUCED = 'Induced'
STABLE_CONTINENTAL = 'Stable Shallow Crust'
SUBDUCTION_INTERFACE = 'Subduction Interface'
SUBDUCTION_INTRASLAB = 'Subduction IntraSlab'
UPPER_MANTLE = 'Upper Mantle'
VOLCANIC = 'Volcanic'

correlation

Module openquake.hazardlib.correlation defines correlation models for spatially-distributed ground-shaking intensities.

class openquake.hazardlib.correlation.BaseCorrelationModel[source]

Bases: object

Base class for correlation models for spatially-distributed ground-shaking intensities.

apply_correlation(sites, imt, residuals, stddev_intra=0)[source]

Apply correlation to randomly sampled residuals.

Parameters
  • sitesSiteCollection residuals were sampled for.

  • imt – Intensity measure type object, see openquake.hazardlib.imt.

  • residuals – 2d numpy array of sampled residuals, where first dimension represents sites (the length as sites parameter) and second one represents different realizations (samples).

  • stddev_intra – Intra-event standard deviation array. Note that different sites do not necessarily have the same intra-event standard deviation.

Returns

Array of the same structure and semantics as residuals but with correlations applied.

NB: the correlation matrix is cached. It is computed only once per IMT for the complete site collection and then the portion corresponding to the sites is multiplied by the residuals.

class openquake.hazardlib.correlation.HM2018CorrelationModel(uncertainty_multiplier=0)[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.correlation.BaseCorrelationModel

“Uncertainty in intraevent spatial correlation of elastic pseudo- acceleration spectral ordinates” by Pablo Heresi and Eduardo Miranda. Submitted for possible publication in Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 2018.

Parameters

uncertainty_multiplier – Value to be multiplied by the uncertainty in the correlation parameter beta. If uncertainty_multiplier = 0 (default), the median value is used as a constant value.

apply_correlation(sites, imt, residuals, stddev_intra)[source]

Apply correlation to randomly sampled residuals.

See Parent function

class openquake.hazardlib.correlation.JB2009CorrelationModel(vs30_clustering)[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.correlation.BaseCorrelationModel

“Correlation model for spatially distributed ground-motion intensities” by Nirmal Jayaram and Jack W. Baker. Published in Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 2009; 38, pages 1687-1708.

Parameters

vs30_clustering – Boolean value to indicate whether “Case 1” or “Case 2” from page 1700 should be applied. True value means that Vs 30 values show or are expected to show clustering (“Case 2”), False means otherwise.

get_lower_triangle_correlation_matrix(sites, imt)[source]

Get lower-triangle matrix as a result of Cholesky-decomposition of correlation matrix.

The resulting matrix should have zeros on values above the main diagonal.

The actual implementations of BaseCorrelationModel interface might calculate the matrix considering site collection and IMT (like JB2009CorrelationModel does) or might have it pre-constructed for a specific site collection and IMT, in which case they will need to make sure that parameters to this function match parameters that were used to pre-calculate decomposed correlation matrix.

Parameters
openquake.hazardlib.correlation.hmcorrelation(sites_or_distances, imt, uncertainty_multiplier=0)[source]

Returns the Heresi-Miranda correlation model.

Parameters
  • sites_or_distances – SiteCollection instance o distance matrix

  • imt – Intensity Measure Type (PGA or SA)

  • uncertainty_multiplier – Value to be multiplied by the uncertainty in the correlation parameter beta. If uncertainty_multiplier = 0 (default), the median value is used as a constant value.

openquake.hazardlib.correlation.jbcorrelation(sites_or_distances, imt, vs30_clustering=False)[source]

Returns the Jayaram-Baker correlation model.

Parameters
  • sites_or_distances – SiteCollection instance o ristance matrix

  • imt – Intensity Measure Type (PGA or SA)

  • vs30_clustering – flag, defalt false

imt

Module openquake.hazardlib.imt defines different intensity measure types.

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.ASH[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Level of the ash fall in millimeters

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.AvgSA[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Dummy spectral acceleration to compute average ground motion over several spectral ordinates.

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.CAV[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Cumulative Absolute Velocity. Defins the integral of the absolute acceleration time series. Units are “g-sec”

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.IA[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Arias intensity. Determines the intensity of shaking by measuring the acceleration of transient seismic waves. Units are m/s.

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT[source]

Bases: tuple

Base class for intensity measure type.

Subclasses may define class attribute _fields as a tuple with names of parameters the specific intensity measure type requires (if there are any).

property name

The name of the Intensity Measure Type (ex. “PGA”, “SA”, …)

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMTMeta[source]

Bases: type

Metaclass setting __slots__, __new__ and the properties of IMT classes

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.MMI[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Modified Mercalli intensity, a Roman numeral describing the severity of an earthquake in terms of its effects on the earth’s surface and on humans and their structures.

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.PGA[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Peak ground acceleration during an earthquake measured in units of g, times of gravitational acceleration.

period = 0.0
class openquake.hazardlib.imt.PGD[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Peak ground displacement during an earthquake measured in units of cm.

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.PGDfLatSpread[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Permanent ground defomation (m) from lateral spread

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.PGDfRupture[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Permanent ground deformation (m) from co-seismic rupture

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.PGDfSettle[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Permanent ground defomation (m) from settlement

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.PGDfSlope[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Permanent ground deformation (m) from slope failure

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.PGV[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Peak ground velocity during an earthquake measured in units of cm/sec.

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.RSD[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Relative significant duration, 5-95% of Arias intensity, in seconds.

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.RSD2080[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Relative significant duration, 20-80% of Arias intensity, in seconds.

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.RSD575[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Relative significant duration, 5-75% of Arias intensity, in seconds.

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.RSD595[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Alias for RSD

class openquake.hazardlib.imt.SA[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.imt.IMT

Spectral acceleration, defined as the maximum acceleration of a damped, single-degree-of-freedom harmonic oscillator. Units are g, times of gravitational acceleration.

Parameters
  • period – The natural period of the oscillator in seconds.

  • damping – The degree of damping for the oscillator in percents.

Raises

ValueError – if period or damping is not positive.

property damping

itemgetter(item, …) –> itemgetter object

Return a callable object that fetches the given item(s) from its operand. After f = itemgetter(2), the call f(r) returns r[2]. After g = itemgetter(2, 5, 3), the call g(r) returns (r[2], r[5], r[3])

property period

itemgetter(item, …) –> itemgetter object

Return a callable object that fetches the given item(s) from its operand. After f = itemgetter(2), the call f(r) returns r[2]. After g = itemgetter(2, 5, 3), the call g(r) returns (r[2], r[5], r[3])

openquake.hazardlib.imt.from_string(imt)[source]

Convert an IMT string into an hazardlib object.

Parameters

imt (str) – Intensity Measure Type.

openquake.hazardlib.imt.imt2tup(string)[source]
>>> imt2tup('PGA')
('PGA',)
>>> imt2tup('SA(1.0)')
('SA', 1.0)
>>> imt2tup('SA(1)')
('SA', 1.0)
openquake.hazardlib.imt.positivefloat(val)[source]

Raise a ValueError if val <= 0

near_fault

Module openquake.hazardlib.nearfault provides methods for near fault PSHA calculation.

openquake.hazardlib.near_fault.average_s_rad(site, hypocenter, reference, pp, normal, dist_to_plane, e, p0, p1, delta_slip)[source]

Gets the average S-wave radiation pattern given an e-path as described in: Spudich et al. (2013) “Final report of the NGA-West2 directivity working group”, PEER report, page 90- 92 and computes: the site to the direct point distance, rd, and the hypocentral distance, r_hyp.

Parameters
  • sitePoint object representing the location of the target site

  • hypocenterPoint object representing the location of hypocenter

  • referencePoint object representing the location of the reference point for coordinate projection within the calculation. The suggested reference point is Epicentre.

  • pp – the projection point pp on the patch plane, a numpy array

  • normal – normal of the plane, describe by a normal vector[a, b, c]

  • dist_to_plane – d is the constant term in the plane equation, e.g., ax + by + cz = d

  • e – a float defining the E-path length, which is the distance from Pd(direction) point to hypocentre. In km.

  • p0Point object representing the location of the starting point on fault segment

  • p1Point object representing the location of the ending point on fault segment.

  • delta_slip – slip direction away from the strike direction, in decimal degrees. A positive angle is generated by a counter-clockwise rotation.

Returns

fs, float value of the average S-wave radiation pattern. rd, float value of the distance from site to the direct point. r_hyp, float value of the hypocetre distance.

openquake.hazardlib.near_fault.directp(node0, node1, node2, node3, hypocenter, reference, pp)[source]

Get the Direct Point and the corresponding E-path as described in Spudich et al. (2013). This method also provides a logical variable stating if the DPP calculation must consider the neighbouring patch. To define the intersection point(Pd) of PpPh line segment and fault plane, we obtain the intersection points(Pd) with each side of fault plan, and check which intersection point(Pd) is the one fitting the definition in the Chiou and Spudich(2014) directivity model. Two possible locations for Pd, the first case, Pd locates on the side of the fault patch when Pp is not inside the fault patch. The second case is when Pp is inside the fault patch, then Pd=Pp.

For the first case, it follows three conditions: 1. the PpPh and PdPh line vector are the same, 2. PpPh >= PdPh, 3. Pd is not inside the fault patch.

If we can not find solution for all the four possible intersection points for the first case, we check if the intersection point fit the second case by checking if Pp is inside the fault patch.

Because of the coordinate system mapping(from geographic system to Catestian system), we allow an error when we check the location. The allow error will keep increasing after each loop when no solution in the two cases are found, until the solution get obtained.

Parameters
  • node0Point object representing the location of one vertices on the target fault segment.

  • node1Point object representing the location of one vertices on the target fault segment. Note, the order should be clockwise.

  • node2Point object representing the location of one vertices on the target fault segment. Note, the order should be clockwise.

  • node3Point object representing the location of one vertices on the target fault segment. Note, the order should be clockwise.

  • hypocenterPoint object representing the location of floating hypocenter on each segment calculation. In the method, we take the direction point of the previous fault patch as hypocentre for the current fault patch.

  • referencePoint object representing the location of reference point for projection

  • pp – the projection of the site onto the plane containing the fault slipped area. A numpy array.

Returns

Pd, a numpy array, representing the location of direction point E, the distance from direction point to hypocentre. go_next_patch, flag indicates if the calculation goes on the next fault patch. 1: yes, 0: no.

openquake.hazardlib.near_fault.get_plane_equation(p0, p1, p2, reference)[source]

Define the equation of target fault plane passing through 3 given points which includes two points on the fault trace and one point on the fault plane but away from the fault trace. Note: in order to remain the consistency of the fault normal vector direction definition, the order of the three given points is strickly defined.

Parameters
  • p0 – The fault trace and is the closer points from the starting point of fault trace. Point object representing the location of the one vertex of the fault patch.

  • p1 – The fault trace and is the further points from the starting point of fault trace. Point object representing the location of the one vertex of the fault patch.

  • p2 – The point on the fault plane but away from the fault trace. Point object representing the location of the one vertex of the fault patch.

  • referencePoint object representing the origin of the cartesian system used the represent objects in a projected reference

Returns

normal: normal vector of the plane (a,b,c) dist_to_plane: d in the plane equation, ax + by + cz = d

openquake.hazardlib.near_fault.get_xyz_from_ll(projected, reference)[source]

This method computes the x, y and z coordinates of a set of points provided a reference point

Parameters
  • projectedPoint object representing the coordinates of target point to be projected

  • referencePoint object representing the coordinates of the reference point.

Returns

x y z

openquake.hazardlib.near_fault.isochone_ratio(e, rd, r_hyp)[source]

Get the isochone ratio as described in Spudich et al. (2013) PEER report, page 88.

Parameters
  • e – a float defining the E-path length, which is the distance from Pd(direction) point to hypocentre. In km.

  • rd – float, distance from the site to the direct point.

  • r_hyp – float, the hypocentre distance.

Returns

c_prime, a float defining the isochone ratio

openquake.hazardlib.near_fault.projection_pp(site, normal, dist_to_plane, reference)[source]

This method finds the projection of the site onto the plane containing the slipped area, defined as the Pp(i.e. ‘perpendicular projection of site location onto the fault plane’ Spudich et al. (2013) - page 88) given a site.

Parameters
  • site – Location of the site, [lon, lat, dep]

  • normal – Normal to the plane including the fault patch, describe by a normal vector[a, b, c]

  • dist_to_plane – D in the plane equation, ax + by + cz = d

  • referencePoint object representing the location of project reference point

Returns

pp, the projection point, [ppx, ppy, ppz], in xyz domain , a numpy array.

openquake.hazardlib.near_fault.vectors2angle(v1, v2)[source]

Returns the angle in radians between vectors ‘v1’ and ‘v2’.

Parameters
  • v1 – vector, a numpy array

  • v2 – vector, a numpy array

Returns

the angle in radians between the two vetors

nrml

It is possible to save a Node object into a NRML file by using the function write(nodes, output) where output is a file object. If you want to make sure that the generated file is valid according to the NRML schema just open it in ‘w+’ mode: immediately after writing it will be read and validated. It is also possible to convert a NRML file into a Node object with the routine read(node, input) where input is the path name of the NRML file or a file object opened for reading. The file will be validated as soon as opened.

For instance an exposure file like the following:

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<nrml xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.4"
      xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml">
  <exposureModel
      id="my_exposure_model_for_population"
      category="population"
      taxonomySource="fake population datasource">

    <description>
      Sample population
    </description>

    <assets>
      <asset id="asset_01" number="7" taxonomy="IT-PV">
          <location lon="9.15000" lat="45.16667" />
      </asset>

      <asset id="asset_02" number="7" taxonomy="IT-CE">
          <location lon="9.15333" lat="45.12200" />
      </asset>
    </assets>
  </exposureModel>
</nrml>

can be converted as follows:

>> nrml = read(<path_to_the_exposure_file.xml>)

Then subnodes and attributes can be conveniently accessed:

>> nrml.exposureModel.assets[0][‘taxonomy’] ‘IT-PV’ >> nrml.exposureModel.assets[0][‘id’] ‘asset_01’ >> nrml.exposureModel.assets[0].location[‘lon’] ‘9.15000’ >> nrml.exposureModel.assets[0].location[‘lat’] ‘45.16667’

The Node class provides no facility to cast strings into Python types; this is a job for the Node class which can be subclassed and supplemented by a dictionary of validators.

exception openquake.hazardlib.nrml.DuplicatedID[source]

Bases: Exception

Raised when two sources with the same ID are found in a source model

class openquake.hazardlib.nrml.SourceModel(src_groups, name='', investigation_time='', start_time='')[source]

Bases: collections.abc.Sequence

A container of source groups with attributes name, investigation_time and start_time. It is serialize on hdf5 as follows:

>> with openquake.baselib.hdf5.File(‘/tmp/sm.hdf5’, ‘w’) as f: .. f[‘/’] = source_model

openquake.hazardlib.nrml.get_rupture_collection(node, fname, converter)[source]
openquake.hazardlib.nrml.get_source_model_04(node, fname, converter=<openquake.hazardlib.sourceconverter.SourceConverter object>)[source]
openquake.hazardlib.nrml.get_source_model_05(node, fname, converter=<openquake.hazardlib.sourceconverter.SourceConverter object>)[source]
openquake.hazardlib.nrml.get_tag_version(nrml_node)[source]

Extract from a node of kind NRML the tag and the version. For instance from ‘{http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.4}fragilityModel’ one gets the pair (‘fragilityModel’, ‘nrml/0.4’).

openquake.hazardlib.nrml.read(source, chatty=True, stop=None)[source]

Convert a NRML file into a validated Node object. Keeps the entire tree in memory.

Parameters

source – a file name or file object open for reading

openquake.hazardlib.nrml.read_source_models(fnames, converter, monitor)[source]
Parameters
  • fnames – list of source model files

  • converter – a SourceConverter instance

  • monitor – a openquake.performance.Monitor instance

Yields

SourceModel instances

openquake.hazardlib.nrml.to_python(fname, *args)[source]

Parse a NRML file and return an associated Python object. It works by calling nrml.read() and node_to_obj() in sequence.

openquake.hazardlib.nrml.to_string(node)[source]

Convert a node into a string in NRML format

openquake.hazardlib.nrml.write(nodes, output=<_io.TextIOWrapper name='<stdout>' mode='w' encoding='UTF-8'>, fmt='%.7E', gml=True, xmlns=None)[source]

Convert nodes into a NRML file. output must be a file object open in write mode. If you want to perform a consistency check, open it in read-write mode, then it will be read after creation and validated.

Params nodes

an iterable over Node objects

Params output

a file-like object in write or read-write mode

Parameters

pmf

Module openquake.hazardlib.pmf implements PMF.

class openquake.hazardlib.pmf.PMF(data, epsilon=1e-12)[source]

Bases: object

assert_equal(other, ignore=())
reduce(bin=0)[source]

Reduce the original PMF to a single bin distribution.

Parameters

bin – the bin to keep (default the first)

sample(number_samples)[source]

Produces a list of samples from the probability mass function.

Parameters

data (int) – Number of samples

Returns

Samples from PMF as a list

sample_pairs(number_samples)[source]

Produces a list of samples from the probability mass function.

Parameters

data (int) – Number of samples

Returns

Samples from PMF as a list of pairs

probability_map

exception openquake.hazardlib.probability_map.AllEmptyProbabilityMaps[source]

Bases: ValueError

Raised by get_shape(pmaps) if all passed probability maps are empty

class openquake.hazardlib.probability_map.ProbabilityCurve(array)[source]

Bases: object

This class is a small wrapper over an array of PoEs associated to a set of intensity measure types and levels. It provides a few operators, including the complement operator ~

~p = 1 - p

and the inclusive or operator |

p = p1 | p2 = ~(~p1 * ~p2)

Such operators are implemented efficiently at the numpy level, by dispatching on the underlying array.

Here is an example of use:

>>> poe = ProbabilityCurve(numpy.array([0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0, 0]))
>>> ~(poe | poe) * .5
<ProbabilityCurve
[0.405 0.32  0.245 0.5   0.5  ]>
convert(imtls, idx=0)[source]

Convert a probability curve into a record of dtype imtls.dt.

Parameters
  • imtls – DictArray instance

  • idx – extract the data corresponding to the given inner index

class openquake.hazardlib.probability_map.ProbabilityMap(shape_y, shape_z=1)[source]

Bases: dict

A dictionary site_id -> ProbabilityCurve. It defines the complement operator ~, performing the complement on each curve

~p = 1 - p

and the “inclusive or” operator |:

m = m1 | m2 = {sid: m1[sid] | m2[sid] for sid in all_sids}

Such operators are implemented efficiently at the numpy level, by dispatching on the underlying array. Moreover there is a classmethod .build(L, I, sids, initvalue) to build initialized instances of ProbabilityMap. The map can be represented as 3D array of shape (shape_x, shape_y, shape_z) = (N, L, I), where N is the number of site IDs, L the total number of hazard levels and I the number of GSIMs.

property array

The underlying array of shape (N, L, I)

classmethod build(shape_y, shape_z, sids, initvalue=0.0, dtype=<class 'numpy.float64'>)[source]
Parameters
  • shape_y – the total number of intensity measure levels

  • shape_z – the number of inner levels

  • sids – a set of site indices

  • initvalue – the initial value of the probability (default 0)

Returns

a ProbabilityMap dictionary

convert(imtls, nsites, idx=0)[source]

Convert a probability map into a composite array of length nsites and dtype imtls.dt.

Parameters
  • imtls – DictArray instance

  • nsites – the total number of sites

  • idx – index on the z-axis (default 0)

extract(inner_idx)[source]

Extracts a component of the underlying ProbabilityCurves, specified by the index inner_idx.

filter(sids)[source]

Extracs a submap of self for the given sids.

classmethod from_array(array, sids)[source]
Parameters
  • array – array of shape (N, L) or (N, L, I)

  • sids – array of N site IDs

property nbytes

The size of the underlying array

setdefault(sid, value, dtype=<class 'numpy.float64'>)[source]

Works like dict.setdefault: if the sid key is missing, it fills it with an array and returns the associate ProbabilityCurve

Parameters
  • sid – site ID

  • value – value used to fill the returned ProbabilityCurve

  • dtype – dtype used internally (F32 or F64)

property sids

The ordered keys of the map as a numpy.uint32 array

openquake.hazardlib.probability_map.combine(pmaps)[source]
Parameters

pmaps – a set of homogenous ProbabilityMaps

Returns

the combined map

openquake.hazardlib.probability_map.get_shape(pmaps)[source]
Parameters

pmaps – a set of homogenous ProbabilityMaps

Returns

the common shape (N, L, I)

site

Module openquake.hazardlib.site defines Site.

class openquake.hazardlib.site.Site(location, vs30=nan, z1pt0=nan, z2pt5=nan, **extras)[source]

Bases: object

Site object represents a geographical location defined by its position as well as its soil characteristics.

Parameters
  • location – Instance of Point representing where the site is located.

  • vs30 – Average shear wave velocity in the top 30 m, in m/s.

  • z1pt0 – Vertical distance from earth surface to the layer where seismic waves start to propagate with a speed above 1.0 km/sec, in meters.

  • z2pt5 – Vertical distance from earth surface to the layer where seismic waves start to propagate with a speed above 2.5 km/sec, in km.

Raises

ValueError – If any of vs30, z1pt0 or z2pt5 is zero or negative.

Note

Sites are pickleable

class openquake.hazardlib.site.SiteCollection(sites)[source]

Bases: object

at_sea_level()[source]

True if all depths are zero

filter(mask)[source]

Create a SiteCollection with only a subset of sites.

Parameters

mask – Numpy array of boolean values of the same length as the site collection. True values should indicate that site with that index should be included into the filtered collection.

Returns

A new SiteCollection instance, unless all the values in mask are True, in which case this site collection is returned, or if all the values in mask are False, in which case method returns None. New collection has data of only those sites that were marked for inclusion in the mask.

filtered(indices)[source]
Parameters

indices – a subset of indices in the range [0 .. tot_sites - 1]

Returns

a filtered SiteCollection instance if indices is a proper subset of the available indices, otherwise returns the full SiteCollection

classmethod from_points(lons, lats, depths=None, sitemodel=None, req_site_params=())[source]

Build the site collection from

Parameters
  • lons – a sequence of longitudes

  • lats – a sequence of latitudes

  • depths – a sequence of depths (or None)

  • sitemodel – None or an object containing site parameters as attributes

  • req_site_params – a sequence of required site parameters, possibly empty

classmethod from_shakemap(shakemap_array)[source]

Build a site collection from a shakemap array

make_complete()[source]

Turns the site collection into a complete one, if needed

property mesh

Return a mesh with the given lons, lats, and depths

split(location, distance)[source]
Returns

(close_sites, far_sites)

split_in_tiles(hint)[source]

Split a SiteCollection into a set of tiles (SiteCollection instances).

Parameters

hint – hint for how many tiles to generate

within(region)[source]
Parameters

region – a shapely polygon

Returns

a filtered SiteCollection of sites within the region

within_bbox(bbox)[source]
Parameters

bbox – a quartet (min_lon, min_lat, max_lon, max_lat)

Returns

site IDs within the bounding box

property xyz
Returns

an array of shape (N, 3) with the cartesian coordinates

sourceconverter

class openquake.hazardlib.sourceconverter.RuptureConverter(rupture_mesh_spacing, complex_fault_mesh_spacing=None)[source]

Bases: object

Convert ruptures from nodes into Hazardlib ruptures.

convert_complexFaultRupture(node)[source]

Convert a complexFaultRupture node.

Parameters

node – the rupture node

convert_griddedRupture(node)[source]

Convert a griddedRupture node.

Parameters

node – the rupture node

convert_multiPlanesRupture(node)[source]

Convert a multiPlanesRupture node.

Parameters

node – the rupture node

convert_node(node)[source]

Convert the given rupture node into a hazardlib rupture, depending on the node tag.

Parameters

node – a node representing a rupture

convert_ruptureCollection(node)[source]
Parameters

node – a ruptureCollection node

Returns

a dictionary grp_id -> EBRuptures

convert_simpleFaultRupture(node)[source]

Convert a simpleFaultRupture node.

Parameters

node – the rupture node

convert_singlePlaneRupture(node)[source]

Convert a singlePlaneRupture node.

Parameters

node – the rupture node

convert_surfaces(surface_nodes)[source]

Utility to convert a list of surface nodes into a single hazardlib surface. There are four possibilities:

  1. there is a single simpleFaultGeometry node; returns a openquake.hazardlib.geo.simpleFaultSurface instance

  2. there is a single complexFaultGeometry node; returns a openquake.hazardlib.geo.complexFaultSurface instance

  3. there is a single griddedSurface node; returns a openquake.hazardlib.geo.GriddedSurface instance

  4. there is a list of PlanarSurface nodes; returns a openquake.hazardlib.geo.MultiSurface instance

Parameters

surface_nodes – surface nodes as just described

fname = None
geo_line(edge)[source]

Utility function to convert a node of kind edge into a openquake.hazardlib.geo.Line instance.

Parameters

edge – a node describing an edge

geo_lines(edges)[source]

Utility function to convert a list of edges into a list of openquake.hazardlib.geo.Line instances.

Parameters

edge – a node describing an edge

geo_planar(surface)[source]

Utility to convert a PlanarSurface node with subnodes topLeft, topRight, bottomLeft, bottomRight into a openquake.hazardlib.geo.PlanarSurface instance.

Parameters

surface – PlanarSurface node

get_mag_rake_hypo(node)[source]
class openquake.hazardlib.sourceconverter.SourceConverter(investigation_time=50.0, rupture_mesh_spacing=10.0, complex_fault_mesh_spacing=None, width_of_mfd_bin=1.0, area_source_discretization=None, minimum_magnitude={'default': 0}, spinning_floating=True, source_id=None)[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.sourceconverter.RuptureConverter

Convert sources from valid nodes into Hazardlib objects.

convert_UCERFSource(node)

Converts the Ucerf Source node into an SES Control object

convert_areaSource(node)[source]

Convert the given node into an area source object.

Parameters

node – a node with tag areaGeometry

Returns

a openquake.hazardlib.source.AreaSource instance

convert_characteristicFaultSource(node)[source]

Convert the given node into a characteristic fault object.

Parameters

node – a node with tag areaGeometry

Returns

a openquake.hazardlib.source.CharacteristicFaultSource instance

convert_complexFaultSource(node)[source]

Convert the given node into a complex fault object.

Parameters

node – a node with tag areaGeometry

Returns

a openquake.hazardlib.source.ComplexFaultSource instance

convert_hpdist(node)[source]

Convert the given node into a probability mass function for the hypo depth distribution.

Parameters

node – a hypoDepthDist node

Returns

a openquake.hazardlib.pmf.PMF instance

convert_mfdist(node)[source]

Convert the given node into a Magnitude-Frequency Distribution object.

Parameters

node – a node of kind incrementalMFD or truncGutenbergRichterMFD

Returns

a openquake.hazardlib.mfd.EvenlyDiscretizedMFD. or openquake.hazardlib.mfd.TruncatedGRMFD instance

convert_multiPointSource(node)[source]

Convert the given node into a MultiPointSource object.

Parameters

node – a node with tag multiPointGeometry

Returns

a openquake.hazardlib.source.MultiPointSource

convert_node(node)[source]

Convert the given rupture node into a hazardlib rupture, depending on the node tag.

Parameters

node – a node representing a rupture

convert_nonParametricSeismicSource(node)[source]

Convert the given node into a non parametric source object.

Parameters

node – a node with tag areaGeometry

Returns

a openquake.hazardlib.source.NonParametricSeismicSource instance

convert_npdist(node)[source]

Convert the given node into a Nodal Plane Distribution.

Parameters

node – a nodalPlaneDist node

Returns

a openquake.hazardlib.geo.NodalPlane instance

convert_pointSource(node)[source]

Convert the given node into a point source object.

Parameters

node – a node with tag pointGeometry

Returns

a openquake.hazardlib.source.PointSource instance

convert_simpleFaultSource(node)[source]

Convert the given node into a simple fault object.

Parameters

node – a node with tag areaGeometry

Returns

a openquake.hazardlib.source.SimpleFaultSource instance

convert_sourceGroup(node)[source]

Convert the given node into a SourceGroup object.

Parameters

node – a node with tag sourceGroup

Returns

a SourceGroup instance

convert_sourceModel(node)[source]
get_tom(node)[source]

Convert the given node into a Temporal Occurrence Model object.

Parameters

node – a node of kind poissonTOM or brownianTOM

Returns

a openquake.hazardlib.mfd.EvenlyDiscretizedMFD. or openquake.hazardlib.mfd.TruncatedGRMFD instance

class openquake.hazardlib.sourceconverter.SourceGroup(trt, sources=None, name=None, src_interdep='indep', rup_interdep='indep', grp_probability=None, min_mag={'default': 0}, max_mag=None, id=0, eff_ruptures=-1, tot_ruptures=0, temporal_occurrence_model=None, cluster=False)[source]

Bases: collections.abc.Sequence

A container for the following parameters:

Parameters
  • trt (str) – the tectonic region type all the sources belong to

  • sources (list) – a list of hazardlib source objects

  • name – The name of the group

  • src_interdep – A string specifying if the sources in this cluster are independent or mutually exclusive

  • rup_indep – A string specifying if the ruptures within each source of the cluster are independent or mutually exclusive

  • weights – A dictionary whose keys are the source IDs of the cluster and the values are the weights associated with each source

  • min_mag – the minimum magnitude among the given sources

  • max_mag – the maximum magnitude among the given sources

  • id – an optional numeric ID (default 0) set by the engine and used when serializing SourceModels to HDF5

  • eff_ruptures – the number of ruptures contained in the group; if -1, the number is unknown and has to be computed by using get_set_num_ruptures

  • tot_ruptures – the potential maximum number of ruptures contained in the group

  • temporal_occurrence_model – A temporal occurrence model controlling the source group occurrence

  • cluster – A boolean indicating if the sources behaves as a cluster similarly to what used by the USGS for the New Madrid in the 2008 National Hazard Model.

property atomic
Returns

True if the group cannot be split

classmethod collect(sources)[source]
Parameters

sources – dictionaries with a key ‘tectonicRegion’

Returns

an ordered list of SourceGroup instances

update(src)[source]

Update the attributes sources, min_mag, max_mag according to the given source.

Parameters

src – an instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.base.BaseSeismicSource

openquake.hazardlib.sourceconverter.check_dupl(dist, fname=None, lineno=None)[source]

Raise a ValueError if the distribution contains two identical values.

Parameters

dist – a list of pairs [(prob, value)…]

openquake.hazardlib.sourceconverter.collapse(array)[source]

Collapse a homogeneous array into a scalar; do nothing if the array is not homogenous

openquake.hazardlib.sourceconverter.dists(node)[source]
Returns

hpdist, npdist and magScaleRel from the given pointSource node

openquake.hazardlib.sourceconverter.get_set_num_ruptures(src)[source]

Extract the number of ruptures and set it

openquake.hazardlib.sourceconverter.mfds2multimfd(mfds)[source]

Convert a list of MFD nodes into a single MultiMFD node

openquake.hazardlib.sourceconverter.split_coords_2d(seq)[source]
Parameters

seq – a flat list with lons and lats

Returns

a validated list of pairs (lon, lat)

>>> split_coords_2d([1.1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3])
[(1.1, 2.1), (2.2, 2.3)]
openquake.hazardlib.sourceconverter.split_coords_3d(seq)[source]
Parameters

seq – a flat list with lons, lats and depths

Returns

a validated list of (lon, lat, depths) triplets

>>> split_coords_3d([1.1, 2.1, 0.1, 2.3, 2.4, 0.1])
[(1.1, 2.1, 0.1), (2.3, 2.4, 0.1)]
openquake.hazardlib.sourceconverter.update_source_model(sm_node, fname)[source]
Parameters

sm_node – a sourceModel Node object containing sourceGroups

sourcewriter

Source model XML Writer

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_arbitrary_mfd(mfd)[source]

Parses the arbitrary MFD as a Node

Parameters

mfd – MFD as instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.mfd.arbitrary.ArbitraryMFD

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_area_source_geometry(area_source)[source]

Returns the area source geometry as a Node

Parameters

area_source – Area source model as an instance of the :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.area.AreaSource

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_area_source_node(area_source)[source]

Parses an area source to a Node class

Parameters

area_source – Area source as instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.area.AreaSource

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_characteristic_fault_source_node(source)[source]
openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_complex_fault_geometry(fault_source)[source]

Returns the complex fault source geometry as a Node

Parameters

fault_source – Complex fault source model as an instance of the :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.complex_fault.ComplexFaultSource

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_complex_fault_source_node(fault_source)[source]

Parses a complex fault source to a Node class

Parameters

fault_source – Simple fault source as instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.complex_fault.ComplexFaultSource

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_evenly_discretised_mfd(mfd)[source]

Returns the evenly discretized MFD as a Node

Parameters

mfd – MFD as instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.mfd.evenly_discretized.EvenlyDiscretizedMFD

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_hypo_depth_dist(hdd)[source]

Returns the hypocentral depth distribution as a Node instance

Parameters

hdd – Hypocentral depth distribution as an instance of :class: openquake.hzardlib.pmf.PMF

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_hypo_list_node(hypo_list)[source]
Parameters

hypo_list – an array of shape (N, 3) with columns (alongStrike, downDip, weight)

Returns

a hypoList node containing N hypo nodes

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_linestring_node(line, with_depth=False)[source]

Parses a line to a Node class

Parameters
Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_multi_mfd(mfd)[source]

Parses the MultiMFD as a Node

Parameters

mfd – MFD as instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.mfd.multi_mfd.MultiMFD

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_multi_point_source_node(multi_point_source)[source]

Parses a point source to a Node class

Parameters

point_source – MultiPoint source as instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.point.MultiPointSource

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_nodal_plane_dist(npd)[source]

Returns the nodal plane distribution as a Node instance

Parameters

npd – Nodal plane distribution as instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.pmf.PMF

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_nonparametric_source_node(source)[source]
openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_point_source_geometry(point_source)[source]

Returns the poing source geometry as a Node

Parameters

point_source – Point source model as an instance of the :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.point.PointSource

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_point_source_node(point_source)[source]

Parses a point source to a Node class

Parameters

point_source – Point source as instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.point.PointSource

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_rupture_node(rupt, probs_occur)[source]
Parameters
  • rupt – a hazardlib rupture object

  • probs_occur – a list of floats with sum 1

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_simple_fault_geometry(fault_source)[source]

Returns the simple fault source geometry as a Node

Parameters

fault_source – Simple fault source model as an instance of the :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.simple_fault.SimpleFaultSource

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_simple_fault_source_node(fault_source)[source]

Parses a simple fault source to a Node class

Parameters

fault_source – Simple fault source as instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.simple_fault.SimpleFaultSource

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_slip_list_node(slip_list)[source]
Parameters

slip_list – an array of shape (N, 2) with columns (slip, weight)

Returns

a hypoList node containing N slip nodes

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_source_group(source_group)[source]
openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_source_model(csm)[source]
openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_source_model_node(source_model)[source]
openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_truncated_gr_mfd(mfd)[source]

Parses the truncated Gutenberg Richter MFD as a Node

Parameters

mfd – MFD as instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.mfd.truncated_gr.TruncatedGRMFD

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.build_youngs_coppersmith_mfd(mfd)[source]

Parses the Youngs & Coppersmith MFD as a node. Note that the MFD does not hold the total moment rate, but only the characteristic rate. Therefore the node is written to the characteristic rate version regardless of whether or not it was originally created from total moment rate

Parameters

mfd – MFD as instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.mfd.youngs_coppersmith_1985. YoungsCoppersmith1985MFD

Returns

Instance of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.get_distributed_seismicity_source_nodes(source)[source]

Returns list of nodes of attributes common to all distributed seismicity source classes

Parameters

source – Seismic source as instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.area.AreaSource or :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.point.PointSource

Returns

List of instances of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.get_fault_source_nodes(source)[source]

Returns list of nodes of attributes common to all fault source classes

Parameters

source – Fault source as instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.simple_fault.SimpleFaultSource or :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.complex_fault.ComplexFaultSource

Returns

List of instances of openquake.baselib.node.Node

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.get_source_attributes(source)[source]

Retreives a dictionary of source attributes from the source class

Parameters

source – Seismic source as instance of :class: openquake.hazardlib.source.base.BaseSeismicSource

Returns

Dictionary of source attributes

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.tomldump(obj, fileobj=None)[source]

Write a generic serializable object in TOML format

openquake.hazardlib.sourcewriter.write_source_model(dest, sources_or_groups, name=None, investigation_time=None)[source]

Writes a source model to XML.

Parameters
  • dest – Destination path

  • sources_or_groups – Source model in different formats

  • name – Name of the source model (if missing, extracted from the filename)

stats

Utilities to compute mean and quantile curves

openquake.hazardlib.stats.apply_stat(f, arraylist, *extra, **kw)[source]
Parameters
  • f – a callable arraylist -> array (of the same shape and dtype)

  • arraylist – a list of arrays of the same shape and dtype

  • extra – additional positional arguments

  • kw – keyword arguments

Returns

an array of the same shape and dtype

Broadcast statistical functions to composite arrays. Here is an example:

>>> dt = numpy.dtype([('a', (float, 2)), ('b', float)])
>>> a1 = numpy.array([([1, 2], 3)], dt)
>>> a2 = numpy.array([([4, 5], 6)], dt)
>>> apply_stat(mean_curve, [a1, a2])
array([([2.5, 3.5], 4.5)], dtype=[('a', '<f8', (2,)), ('b', '<f8')])
openquake.hazardlib.stats.compute_pmap_stats(pmaps, stats, weights, imtls)[source]
Parameters
  • pmaps – a list of R probability maps

  • stats – a sequence of S statistic functions

  • weights – a list of ImtWeights

  • imtls – a DictArray of intensity measure types

Returns

a probability map with S internal values

openquake.hazardlib.stats.compute_stats(array, stats, weights)[source]
Parameters
  • array – an array of R elements (which can be arrays)

  • stats – a sequence of S statistic functions

  • weights – a list of R weights

Returns

an array of S elements (which can be arrays)

openquake.hazardlib.stats.compute_stats2(arrayNR, stats, weights)[source]
Parameters
  • arrayNR – an array of (N, R) elements

  • stats – a sequence of S statistic functions

  • weights – a list of R weights

Returns

an array of (N, S) elements

openquake.hazardlib.stats.max_curve(values, weights=None)[source]

Compute the maximum curve by taking the upper limits of the values; the weights are ignored and present only for API compatibility. The values can be arrays and then the maximum is taken pointwise:

>>> max_curve([numpy.array([.3, .2]), numpy.array([.1, .4])])
array([0.3, 0.4])
openquake.hazardlib.stats.mean_curve(values, weights=None)[source]

Compute the mean by using numpy.average on the first axis.

openquake.hazardlib.stats.quantile_curve(quantile, curves, weights=None)[source]

Compute the weighted quantile aggregate of a set of curves.

Parameters
  • quantile – Quantile value to calculate. Should be in the range [0.0, 1.0].

  • curves – Array of R PoEs (possibly arrays)

  • weights – Array-like of weights, 1 for each input curve, or None

Returns

A numpy array representing the quantile aggregate

openquake.hazardlib.stats.set_rlzs_stats(dstore, prefix, arrayNR=None)[source]
Parameters
  • dstore – a DataStore object

  • prefix – dataset prefix

  • arrayNR – an array of shape (N, R, …)

openquake.hazardlib.stats.std_curve(values, weights=None)[source]

tom

Module openquake.hazardlib.tom contains implementations of probability density functions for earthquake temporal occurrence modeling.

class openquake.hazardlib.tom.BaseTOM(time_span, occurrence_rate=None)[source]

Bases: object

Base class for temporal occurrence model.

Parameters

time_span – The time interval of interest, in years.

Raises

ValueError – If time_span is not positive.

assert_equal(other, ignore=())
abstract get_probability_n_occurrences()[source]

Calculate the probability of occurrence of a number of events in the constructor’s time_span.

abstract get_probability_no_exceedance()[source]

Compute and return, for a number of ground motion levels and sites, the probability that a rupture with annual occurrence rate given by occurrence_rate and able to cause ground motion values higher than a given level at a site with probability poes, does not cause any exceedance in the time window specified by the time_span parameter given in the constructor.

abstract get_probability_one_or_more_occurrences()[source]

Calculate and return the probability of event to happen one or more times within the time range defined by constructor’s time_span parameter value.

abstract sample_number_of_occurrences(seeds=None)[source]

Draw a random sample from the distribution and return a number of events to occur.

The method uses the numpy random generator, which needs a seed in order to get reproducible results. If the seed is None, it should be set outside of this method.

class openquake.hazardlib.tom.FatedTOM(time_span, occurrence_rate=None)[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.tom.BaseTOM

assert_equal(other, ignore=())
get_probability_n_occurrences(occurrence_rate, num)[source]

Calculate the probability of occurrence of a number of events in the constructor’s time_span.

get_probability_no_exceedance(occurrence_rate, poes)[source]

Compute and return, for a number of ground motion levels and sites, the probability that a rupture with annual occurrence rate given by occurrence_rate and able to cause ground motion values higher than a given level at a site with probability poes, does not cause any exceedance in the time window specified by the time_span parameter given in the constructor.

get_probability_one_or_more_occurrences(occurrence_rate)[source]

Calculate and return the probability of event to happen one or more times within the time range defined by constructor’s time_span parameter value.

sample_number_of_occurrences(seeds=None)[source]

Draw a random sample from the distribution and return a number of events to occur.

The method uses the numpy random generator, which needs a seed in order to get reproducible results. If the seed is None, it should be set outside of this method.

class openquake.hazardlib.tom.PoissonTOM(time_span, occurrence_rate=None)[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.tom.BaseTOM

Poissonian temporal occurrence model.

assert_equal(other, ignore=())
get_probability_n_occurrences(occurrence_rate, num)[source]

Calculate the probability of occurrence of num events in the constructor’s time_span.

Parameters
  • occurrence_rate – Annual rate of occurrence

  • num – Number of events

Returns

Probability of occurrence

get_probability_no_exceedance(occurrence_rate, poes)[source]

The probability is computed using the following formula

(1 - e ** (-occurrence_rate * time_span)) ** poes
Parameters
  • occurrence_rate – The average number of events per year.

  • poes – 2D numpy array containing conditional probabilities that the rupture occurrence causes a ground shaking value exceeding a ground motion level at a site. First dimension represent sites, second dimension intensity measure levels. poes can be obtained calling the method.

Returns

2D numpy array containing probabilities of no exceedance. First dimension represents sites, second dimensions intensity measure levels.

get_probability_one_or_more_occurrences(occurrence_rate)[source]

Calculates probability as 1 - e ** (-occurrence_rate*time_span).

Parameters

occurrence_rate – The average number of events per year.

Returns

Float value between 0 and 1 inclusive.

sample_number_of_occurrences(occurrence_rate, seeds=None)[source]

Draw a random sample from the distribution and return a number of events to occur.

The method uses the numpy random generator, which needs a seed in order to get reproducible results. If the seed is None, it should be set outside of this method.

Parameters
  • occurrence_rate – The average number of events per year.

  • seeds – Random number generator seeds, one per each occurrence_rate

Returns

Sampled integer number of events to occur within model’s time span.

valid

Validation library for the engine, the desktop tools, and anything else

class openquake.hazardlib.valid.Choice(*choices)[source]

Bases: object

Check if the choice is valid (case sensitive).

class openquake.hazardlib.valid.ChoiceCI(*choices)[source]

Bases: object

Check if the choice is valid (case insensitive version).

class openquake.hazardlib.valid.Choices(*choices)[source]

Bases: openquake.hazardlib.valid.Choice

Convert the choices, passed as a comma separated string, into a tuple of validated strings. For instance

>>> Choices('xml', 'csv')('xml,csv')
('xml', 'csv')
class openquake.hazardlib.valid.FloatRange(minrange, maxrange, name='', accept=None)[source]

Bases: object

class openquake.hazardlib.valid.FromFile[source]

Bases: object

Fake GSIM to be used when the GMFs are imported from an external file and not computed with a GSIM.

DEFINED_FOR_INTENSITY_MEASURE_TYPES = {}
REQUIRES_SITES_PARAMETERS = {}
init()[source]
kwargs = {}
class openquake.hazardlib.valid.MetaParamSet(name, bases, dic)[source]

Bases: type

Set the .name attribute of every Param instance defined inside any subclass of ParamSet.

class openquake.hazardlib.valid.NoneOr(cast)[source]

Bases: object

Accept the empty string (casted to None) or something else validated by the underlying cast validator.

class openquake.hazardlib.valid.Param(validator, default=<object object>, name=None)[source]

Bases: object

A descriptor for validated parameters with a default, to be used as attributes in ParamSet objects.

Parameters
  • validator – the validator

  • default – the default value

NODEFAULT = <object object>
class openquake.hazardlib.valid.ParamSet(**names_vals)[source]

Bases: openquake.baselib.hdf5.LiteralAttrs

A set of valid interrelated parameters. Here is an example of usage:

>>> class MyParams(ParamSet):
...     a = Param(positiveint)
...     b = Param(positivefloat)
...
...     def is_valid_not_too_big(self):
...         "The sum of a and b must be under 10: a={a} and b={b}"
...         return self.a + self.b < 10
>>> mp = MyParams(a='1', b='7.2')
>>> mp
<MyParams a=1, b=7.2>
>>> MyParams(a='1', b='9.2').validate()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: The sum of a and b must be under 10: a=1 and b=9.2

The constrains are applied in lexicographic order. The attribute corresponding to a Param descriptor can be set as usual:

>>> mp.a = '2'
>>> mp.a
'2'

A list with the literal strings can be extracted as follows:

>>> mp.to_params()
[('a', "'2'"), ('b', '7.2')]

It is possible to build a new object from a dictionary of parameters which are assumed to be already validated:

>>> MyParams.from_(dict(a="'2'", b='7.2'))
<MyParams a='2', b=7.2>
classmethod check(dic)[source]

Convert a dictionary name->string into a dictionary name->value by converting the string. If the name does not correspond to a known parameter, just ignore it and print a warning.

classmethod from_(dic)[source]

Build a new ParamSet from a dictionary of string-valued parameters which are assumed to be already valid.

params = {}
to_params()[source]

Convert the instance dictionary into a sorted list of pairs (name, valrepr) where valrepr is the string representation of the underlying value.

validate()[source]

Apply the is_valid methods to self and possibly raise a ValueError.

class openquake.hazardlib.valid.Regex(regex)[source]

Bases: object

Compare the value with the given regex

class openquake.hazardlib.valid.RjbEquivalent(filename)[source]

Bases: object

A class to compute the equivalent Rjb distance. Usage:

>> reqv = RjbEquivalent(‘lookup.hdf5’) >> reqv.get(repi_distances, mag)

get(repi, mag)[source]
Parameters
  • repi – an array of epicentral distances in the range self.repi

  • mag – a magnitude in the range self.mags

Returns

an array of equivalent distances

class openquake.hazardlib.valid.SimpleId(length, regex='^[\w_\-]+$')[source]

Bases: object

Check if the given value is a valid ID.

Parameters
  • length – maximum length of the ID

  • regex – accepted characters

openquake.hazardlib.valid.ab_values(value)[source]

a and b values of the GR magniture-scaling relation. a is a positive float, b is just a float.

openquake.hazardlib.valid.boolean(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string such as ‘0’, ‘1’, ‘true’, ‘false’

Returns

boolean

>>> boolean('')
False
>>> boolean('True')
True
>>> boolean('false')
False
>>> boolean('t')
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
ValueError: Not a boolean: t
openquake.hazardlib.valid.check_levels(imls, imt, min_iml=1e-10)[source]

Raise a ValueError if the given levels are invalid.

Parameters
  • imls – a list of intensity measure and levels

  • imt – the intensity measure type

  • min_iml – minimum intensity measure level (default 1E-10)

>>> check_levels([0.1, 0.2], 'PGA')  # ok
>>> check_levels([], 'PGA')
Traceback (most recent call last):
   ...
ValueError: No imls for PGA: []
>>> check_levels([0.2, 0.1], 'PGA')
Traceback (most recent call last):
   ...
ValueError: The imls for PGA are not sorted: [0.2, 0.1]
>>> check_levels([0.2, 0.2], 'PGA')
Traceback (most recent call last):
   ...
ValueError: Found duplicated levels for PGA: [0.2, 0.2]
openquake.hazardlib.valid.check_weights(nodes_with_a_weight)[source]

Ensure that the sum of the values is 1

Parameters

nodes_with_a_weight – a list of Node objects with a weight attribute

openquake.hazardlib.valid.compose(*validators)[source]

Implement composition of validators. For instance

>>> utf8_not_empty = compose(utf8, not_empty)
openquake.hazardlib.valid.coordinates(value)[source]

Convert a non-empty string into a list of lon-lat coordinates.

>>> coordinates('')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Empty list of coordinates: ''
>>> coordinates('1.1 1.2')
[(1.1, 1.2, 0.0)]
>>> coordinates('1.1 1.2, 2.2 2.3')
[(1.1, 1.2, 0.0), (2.2, 2.3, 0.0)]
>>> coordinates('1.1 1.2 -0.4, 2.2 2.3 -0.5')
[(1.1, 1.2, -0.4), (2.2, 2.3, -0.5)]
>>> coordinates('0 0 0, 0 0 -1')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Found overlapping site #2,  0 0 -1
openquake.hazardlib.valid.decreasing_probabilities(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string, comma separated or space separated

Returns

a list of decreasing probabilities

>>> decreasing_probabilities('1')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Not enough probabilities, found '1'
>>> decreasing_probabilities('0.2 0.1')
[0.2, 0.1]
>>> decreasing_probabilities('0.1 0.2')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: The probabilities 0.1 0.2 are not in decreasing order
openquake.hazardlib.valid.depth(value)
Parameters

value – input string

Returns

a floating point number

openquake.hazardlib.valid.dictionary(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string corresponding to a literal Python object

Returns

the Python object

>>> dictionary('')
{}
>>> dictionary('{}')
{}
>>> dictionary('{"a": 1}')
{'a': 1}
>>> dictionary('"vs30_clustering: true"')  # an error really done by a user
Traceback (most recent call last):
   ...
ValueError: '"vs30_clustering: true"' is not a valid Python dictionary
>>> dictionary('{"ls": logscale(0.01, 2, 5)}')
{'ls': [0.01, 0.03760603093086393, 0.14142135623730948, 0.5318295896944986, 1.9999999999999991]}
openquake.hazardlib.valid.disagg_outputs(value)[source]

Validate disaggregation outputs. For instance

>>> disagg_outputs('TRT Mag_Dist')
['TRT', 'Mag_Dist']
>>> disagg_outputs('TRT, Mag_Dist')
['TRT', 'Mag_Dist']
openquake.hazardlib.valid.float_(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string

Returns

a floating point number

openquake.hazardlib.valid.floatdict(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string corresponding to a literal Python number or dictionary

Returns

a Python dictionary key -> number

>>> floatdict("200")
{'default': 200}
>>> text = "{'active shallow crust': 250., 'default': 200}"
>>> sorted(floatdict(text).items())
[('active shallow crust', 250.0), ('default', 200)]
openquake.hazardlib.valid.floats(value)[source]
Parameters

value – string of whitespace separated floats

Returns

a list of floats

openquake.hazardlib.valid.gsim(value)[source]

Convert a string in TOML format into a GSIM instance

>>> gsim('[BooreAtkinson2011]')
[BooreAtkinson2011]
openquake.hazardlib.valid.hazard_id(value)[source]
>>> hazard_id('')
()
>>> hazard_id('-1')
(-1,)
>>> hazard_id('42')
(42,)
>>> hazard_id('42,3')
(42, 3)
>>> hazard_id('42,3,4')
(42, 3, 4)
>>> hazard_id('42:3')
Traceback (most recent call last):
   ...
ValueError: Invalid hazard_id '42:3'
openquake.hazardlib.valid.hypo_list(nodes)[source]
Parameters

nodes – a hypoList node with N hypocenter nodes

Returns

a numpy array of shape (N, 3) with strike, dip and weight

openquake.hazardlib.valid.integers(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string

Returns

non-empty list of integers

>>> integers('1, 2')
[1, 2]
>>> integers(' ')
Traceback (most recent call last):
   ...
ValueError: Not a list of integers: ' '
openquake.hazardlib.valid.intensity_measure_type(value)[source]

Make sure value is a valid intensity measure type and return it in a normalized form

>>> intensity_measure_type('SA(0.10)')  # NB: strips the trailing 0
'SA(0.1)'
>>> intensity_measure_type('SA')  # this is invalid
Traceback (most recent call last):
  ...
ValueError: Invalid IMT: 'SA'
openquake.hazardlib.valid.intensity_measure_types(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string

Returns

non-empty list of Intensity Measure Type objects

>>> intensity_measure_types('')
[]
>>> intensity_measure_types('PGA')
['PGA']
>>> intensity_measure_types('PGA, SA(1.00)')
['PGA', 'SA(1.0)']
>>> intensity_measure_types('SA(0.1), SA(0.10)')
Traceback (most recent call last):
  ...
ValueError: Duplicated IMTs in SA(0.1), SA(0.10)
>>> intensity_measure_types('SA(1), PGA')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: The IMTs are not sorted by period: SA(1), PGA
openquake.hazardlib.valid.intensity_measure_types_and_levels(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string

Returns

Intensity Measure Type and Levels dictionary

>>> intensity_measure_types_and_levels('{"SA(0.10)": [0.1, 0.2]}')
{'SA(0.1)': [0.1, 0.2]}
openquake.hazardlib.valid.latitude(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string

Returns

latitude float, rounded to 5 digits, i.e. 1 meter maximum

>>> latitude('-0.123456')
-0.12346
openquake.hazardlib.valid.latitudes(value)[source]
Parameters

value – a comma separated string of latitudes

Returns

a list of latitudes

openquake.hazardlib.valid.logic_tree_path(value)[source]
>>> logic_tree_path('SM2_a3b1')
['SM2', 'a3b1']
openquake.hazardlib.valid.logscale(x_min, x_max, n)[source]
Parameters
  • x_min – minumum value

  • x_max – maximum value

  • n – number of steps

Returns

an array of n values from x_min to x_max

openquake.hazardlib.valid.lon_lat(value)[source]
Parameters

value – a pair of coordinates

Returns

a tuple (longitude, latitude)

>>> lon_lat('12 14')
(12.0, 14.0)
openquake.hazardlib.valid.longitude(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string

Returns

longitude float, rounded to 5 digits, i.e. 1 meter maximum

>>> longitude('0.123456')
0.12346
openquake.hazardlib.valid.longitudes(value)[source]
Parameters

value – a comma separated string of longitudes

Returns

a list of longitudes

openquake.hazardlib.valid.loss_ratios(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string

Returns

dictionary loss_type -> loss ratios

>>> loss_ratios('{"structural": [0.1, 0.2]}')
{'structural': [0.1, 0.2]}
openquake.hazardlib.valid.mag_scale_rel(value)[source]
Parameters

value – name of a Magnitude-Scale relationship in hazardlib

Returns

the corresponding hazardlib object

openquake.hazardlib.valid.maximum_distance(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string corresponding to a valid maximum distance

Returns

a IntegrationDistance mapping

openquake.hazardlib.valid.namelist(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string

Returns

list of identifiers separated by whitespace or commas

>>> namelist('a,b')
['a', 'b']
>>> namelist('a1  b_2       _c')
['a1', 'b_2', '_c']
>>> namelist('a1 b_2 1c')
['a1', 'b_2', '1c']
openquake.hazardlib.valid.nonzero(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string

Returns

the value unchanged

>>> nonzero('1')
'1'
>>> nonzero('0')
Traceback (most recent call last):
  ...
ValueError: '0' is zero
openquake.hazardlib.valid.not_empty(value)[source]

Check that the string is not all blanks

openquake.hazardlib.valid.pmf(value)[source]

Comvert a string into a Probability Mass Function.

Parameters

value – a sequence of probabilities summing up to 1 (no commas)

Returns

a list of pairs [(probability, index), …] with index starting from 0

>>> pmf("0.157 0.843")
[(0.157, 0), (0.843, 1)]
openquake.hazardlib.valid.point(value)[source]
Parameters

value – a tuple of coordinates as a string (2D or 3D)

Returns

a tuple of coordinates as a string (2D or 3D)

openquake.hazardlib.valid.point3d(value, lon, lat, depth)[source]

This is used to convert nodes of the form <hypocenter lon=”LON” lat=”LAT” depth=”DEPTH”/>

Parameters
  • value – None

  • lon – longitude string

  • lat – latitude string

Returns

a validated triple (lon, lat, depth)

openquake.hazardlib.valid.posList(value)[source]
Parameters

value – a string with the form lon1 lat1 [depth1] … lonN latN [depthN] without commas, where the depts are optional.

Returns

a list of floats without other validations

openquake.hazardlib.valid.positivefloat(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string

Returns

positive float

openquake.hazardlib.valid.positivefloats(value)[source]
Parameters

value – string of whitespace separated floats

Returns

a list of positive floats

openquake.hazardlib.valid.positiveint(value)[source]
Parameters

value – input string

Returns

positive integer

openquake.hazardlib.valid.positiveints(value)[source]
>>> positiveints('1, -1')
Traceback (most recent call last):
   ...
ValueError: -1 is negative in '1, -1'
openquake.hazardlib.valid.probabilities(value, rows=0, cols=0)[source]
Parameters
  • value – input string, comma separated or space separated

  • rows – the number of rows if the floats are in a matrix (0 otherwise)

  • cols – the number of columns if the floats are in a matrix (or 0

Returns

a list of probabilities

>>> probabilities('')
[]
>>> probabilities('1')
[1.0]
>>> probabilities('0.1 0.2')
[0.1, 0.2]
>>> probabilities('0.1, 0.2')  # commas are ignored
[0.1, 0.2]
openquake.hazardlib.valid.simple_slice(value)[source]
>>> simple_slice('2:5')
(2, 5)
>>> simple_slice('0:None')
(0, None)
openquake.hazardlib.valid.site_param(dic)[source]

Convert a dictionary site_model_param -> string into a dictionary of valid casted site parameters.

openquake.hazardlib.valid.slip_list(nodes)[source]
Parameters

nodes – a slipList node with N slip nodes

Returns

a numpy array of shape (N, 2) with slip angle and weight

openquake.hazardlib.valid.sqrscale(x_min, x_max, n)[source]
Parameters
  • x_min – minumum value

  • x_max – maximum value

  • n – number of steps

Returns

an array of n values from x_min to x_max in a quadratic scale

openquake.hazardlib.valid.utf8(value)[source]

Check that the string is UTF-8. Returns an encode bytestring.

>>> utf8(b'\xe0')  
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Not UTF-8: ...
openquake.hazardlib.valid.utf8_not_empty(value)[source]

Check that the string is UTF-8 and not empty

openquake.hazardlib.valid.weights(value)[source]

Space-separated list of weights:

>>> weights('0.1 0.2 0.7')
[0.1, 0.2, 0.7]
>>> weights('0.1 0.2 0.8')
Traceback (most recent call last):
  ...
ValueError: The weights do not sum up to 1: [0.1, 0.2, 0.8]
openquake.hazardlib.valid.wkt_polygon(value)[source]

Convert a string with a comma separated list of coordinates into a WKT polygon, by closing the ring.