# 2. Hazard#

## 2.1. Introduction to the Hazard Module#

The hazard component of the OpenQuake engine builds on top of the OpenQuake hazard library (oq-hazardlib), a Python-based library containing tools for PSHA calculations.

The web repository of this library is available at the following address:

In this section we briefly illustrate the main properties of the hazard component of the OpenQuake engine. In particular, we will describe the main typologies of sources supported and the main calculation workflows available.

### 2.1.1. Source typologies#

An OpenQuake engine seismic source input model contains a list of sources belonging to a finite set of possible typologies. Each source type is defined by a set of parameters - called source data - which are used to specify the source geometry and the properties of seismicity occurrence.

Currently the OpenQuake engine supports the following source types:

• Sources for modelling distributed seismicity:

• Point Source - The elemental source type used to model distributed seismicity. Grid and area sources (described below) are different containers of point sources.

• Area Source - So far, the most frequently adopted source type in national and regional PSHA models.

• Grid Source - A replacement for area sources admitting spatially variable seismicity occurrence properties.

• Fault sources with floating ruptures:

• Simple Fault Source - The simplest fault model in the OpenQuake engine. This source is habitually used to describe shallow seismogenic faults.

• Complex Fault Source - Often used to model subduction interface sources with a complex geometry.

• Fault sources with ruptures always covering the entire fault surface:

• Characteristic Fault Source - A typology of source where ruptures always fill the entire fault surface.

• Non-Parametric Source - A typology of source representing a collection of ruptures, each with their associated probabilities of 0, 1, 2 … occurrences in the investigation time

• Sources for representing individual earthquake ruptures

• Planar fault rupture - an individual fault rupture represented as a single rectangular plane

• Multi-planar fault rupture - an individual rupture represented as a collection of rectangular planes

• Simple fault rupture - an individual fault rupture represented as a simple fault surface

• Complex fault rupture - an individual fault rupture represented as a complex fault surface

The OpenQuake engine contains some basic assumptions for the definition of these source typologies:

• In the case of area and fault sources, the seismicity is homogeneously distributed over the source;

• Seismicity temporal occurrence follows a Poissonian model.

The above sets of sources may be referred to as “parametric” sources, that is to say that the generation of the Earthquake Rupture Forecast is done by the OpenQuake engine based on the parameters of the sources set by the user. In some cases, particularly if the user wishes for the temporal occurrence model to be non-Poissonian (such as the lognormal or Brownian Passage Time models) a different type of behaviour is needed. For this OpenQuake-engine supports a Non-Parametric Source in which the Earthquake Rupture Forecast is provided explicitly by the user as a set of ruptures and their corresponding probabilities of occurrence.

#### 2.1.1.1. Source typologies for modelling distributed seismicity#

##### 2.1.1.1.1. Point sources#

The point source is the elemental source type adopted in the OpenQuake-engine for modelling distributed seismicity. The OpenQuake engine always performs calculations considering finite ruptures, even in the case of point sources.

These are the basic assumptions used to generate ruptures with point sources:

• Ruptures have a rectangular shape

• Rupture hypocenter is located in the middle of the rupture

• Ruptures are limited at the top and at the bottom by two planes parallel to the sea level and placed at two characteristic depths named upper and lower seismogenic depths, respectively (see Fig. 2.1)

###### 2.1.1.1.1.1. Source data#

For the definition of a point source the following parameters are required (Fig. 2.1 shows some of the parameters described below, together with an example of the surface of a generated rupture):

• The coordinates of the point (i.e. longitude and latitude) [decimal degrees]

• The upper and lower seismogenic depths [km]

• One Magnitude-Frequency Distribution

• One magnitude-scaling relationship

• The rupture aspect ratio

• A distribution of nodal planes i.e. one (or several) instances of the following set of parameters:

• strike [degrees]

• dip [degrees]

• rake [degrees]

• A magnitude independent depth distribution of hypocenters [km].

Fig. 2.2 shows ruptures generated by a point source for a range of magnitudes. Each rupture is centered on the single hypocentral position admitted by this point source. Ruptures are created by conserving the area computed using the specified magnitude-area scaling relatioship and the corresponding value of magnitude.

Below we provide the excerpt of an .xml file used to describe the properties of a point source. Note that in this example, ruptures occur on two possible nodal planes and two hypocentral depths. Fig. 2.3 shows the ruptures generated by the point source.

 1<pointSource id="1" name="point" tectonicRegion="Stable Continental Crust">
2     <pointGeometry>
3         <gml:Point>
4             <gml:pos>-122.0 38.0</gml:pos>
5         </gml:Point>
6         <upperSeismoDepth>0.0</upperSeismoDepth>
7         <lowerSeismoDepth>10.0</lowerSeismoDepth>
8    </pointGeometry>
9    <magScaleRel>WC1994</magScaleRel>
10    <ruptAspectRatio>0.5</ruptAspectRatio>
11    <truncGutenbergRichterMFD aValue="-3.5" bValue="1.0" minMag="5.0"
12                                maxMag="6.5" />
13    <nodalPlaneDist>
14         <nodalPlane probability="0.3" strike="0.0" dip="90.0" rake="0.0" />
15         <nodalPlane probability="0.7" strike="90.0" dip="45.0" rake="90.0" />
16    </nodalPlaneDist>
17    <hypoDepthDist>
18        <hypoDepth probability="0.5" depth="4.0" />
19        <hypoDepth probability="0.5" depth="8.0" />
20    </hypoDepthDist>
21</pointSource>

##### 2.1.1.1.2. Grid sources#

A Grid Source is simply a collection of point sources distributed over a regular grid (usually equally spaced in longitude and latitude). In Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis a grid source can be considered a model alternative to area sources, since they both model distributed seismicity. Grid sources are generally used to reproduce more faithfully the spatial pattern of seismicity depicted by the earthquakes occurred in the past; in some models (e.g. Petersen et al. (2008)) only events of low and intermediate magnitudes are considered. They are frequently, though not always, computed using seismicity smoothing algorithms (Frankel 1995; Woo 1996, amongst many others).

The use of smoothing algorithms to produce grid sources brings some advantages compared to area sources, since (1) it removes most of the unavoidable degree of subjectivity due to the definition of the geometries of the area sources and (2) it produces a spatial pattern of seismicity that is usually closer to what observed in the reality. Nevertheless, in many cases smoothing algorithms require an a-priori definition of some setup parameters that expose the calculation to a certain degree of partiality.

Grid sources are modeled in OpenQuake engine simply as a set of point sources; in other words, a grid source is just a long list of point sources specified as described in the previous section.

##### 2.1.1.1.3. Area sources#

Area sources are usually adopted to describe the seismicity occurring over wide areas where the identification and characterization - i.e. the unambiguous definition of position, geometry and seismicity occurrence parameters - of single fault structures is difficult.

From a computation standpoint, area sources are comparable to grid sources since they are both represented in the engine by a list of point sources.

The OpenQuake engine using the source data parameters (see below) creates an equally spaced in distance grid of point sources where each point has the same seismicity occurrence properties (i.e. rate of events generated).

Below we provide a brief description of the parameters necessary to completely describe an area source.

###### 2.1.1.1.3.1. Source data#
• A polygon defining the external border of the area (i.e. a list of Longitude-Latitude [degrees] tuples) The current version of the OQ-engine doesn’t support the definition of internal borders.

• The upper and lower seismogenic depths [km]

• One Magnitude-Frequency Distribution

• One Magnitude-Scaling Relationship

• The rupture aspect ratio

• A distribution of nodal planes i.e. one (or several) instances of the following set of parameters

• strike [degrees]

• dip [degrees]

• rake [degrees]

• A magnitude independent depth distribution of hypocenters [km].

Below we provide the excerpt of an .xml file used to describe the properties of an area source. The ruptures generated by the area source described in the example are controlled by two nodal planes and have hypocenters at localized at two distinct depths.

 1<areaSource id="1" name="Quito" tectonicRegion="Active Shallow Crust">
2    <areaGeometry>
3      <gml:Polygon>
4        <gml:exterior>
5          <gml:LinearRing>
6            <gml:posList>
7              -122.5 37.5
8              -121.5 37.5
9              -121.5 38.5
10              -122.5 38.5
11            </gml:posList>
12          </gml:LinearRing>
13        </gml:exterior>
14      </gml:Polygon>
15      <upperSeismoDepth>0.0</upperSeismoDepth>
16      <lowerSeismoDepth>10.0</lowerSeismoDepth>
17    </areaGeometry>
18    <magScaleRel>PeerMSR</magScaleRel>
19    <ruptAspectRatio>1.5</ruptAspectRatio>
20    <incrementalMFD minMag="6.55" binWidth="0.1">
21        <occurRates>0.0010614989 8.8291627E-4 7.3437777E-4 6.108288E-4
22                    5.080653E-4</occurRates>
23    </incrementalMFD>
24    <nodalPlaneDist>
25        <nodalPlane probability="0.3" strike="0.0" dip="90.0" rake="0.0"/>
26        <nodalPlane probability="0.7" strike="90.0" dip="45.0" rake="90.0"/>
27    </nodalPlaneDist>
28    <hypoDepthDist>
29        <hypoDepth probability="0.5" depth="4.0" />
30        <hypoDepth probability="0.5" depth="8.0" />
31    </hypoDepthDist>
32</areaSource>


#### 2.1.1.2. Fault sources with floating ruptures#

Fault sources in the OpenQuake engine are classified according to the method adopted to distribute ruptures over the fault surface. Two options are currently supported:

• With the first option, ruptures with a surface lower than the whole fault surface are floated so as to cover as much as possible homogeneously the fault surface. This model is compatible with all the supported magnitude-frequency distributions.

• With the second option, ruptures always fill the entire fault surface. This model is compatible with magnitude-frequency distributions similar to a characteristic model (à la (Schwartz and Coppersmith 1984)).

In this subsection we discuss the different fault source types that support floating ruptures. In the next subsection we will illustrate the fault typology available to model a characteristic rupturing behaviour.

##### 2.1.1.2.1. Simple Faults#

Simple Faults are the most common source type used to model shallow faults; the “simple” adjective relates to the geometry description of the source which is obtained by projecting the fault trace (i.e. a polyline) along a characteristic dip direction.

The parameters used to create an instance of this source type are described in the following paragraph.

###### 2.1.1.2.1.1. Source data#
• A horizontal Fault Trace (usually a polyline). It is a list of longitude-latitude tuples [degrees].

• A Frequency-Magnitude Distribution

• A Magnitude-Scaling Relationship

• A representative value of the dip angle (specified following the Aki-Richards convention; see Aki and Richards (2002)) [degrees]

• Rake angle (specified following the Aki-Richards convention; see Aki and Richards (2002)) [degrees]

• Upper and lower depth values limiting the seismogenic interval [km]

For near-fault probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, two additional parameters are needed for characterising seismic sources:

• A hypocentre list. It is a list of the possible hypocentral positions, and the corresponding weights, e.g., alongStrike=”0.25” downDip=”0.25” weight=”0.25”. Each hypocentral position is defined in relative terms using as a reference the upper left corner of the rupture and by specifying the fraction of rupture length and rupture width.

• A slip list. It is a list of the possible rupture slip directions [degrees], and their corresponding weights. The angle describing each slip direction is measured counterclockwise using the fault strike direction as reference.

In near-fault PSHA calculations, the hypocentre list and the slip list are mandatory. The weights in each list must always sum to one. The available GMPE which currently supports the near-fault directivity PSHA calculation in OQ- engine is the ChiouYoungs2014NearFaultEffect GMPE developed by Brian S.-J. Chiou and Youngs (2014) (associated with an Active Shallow Crust tectonic region type).

We provide two examples of simple fault source files. The first is an excerpt of an xml file used to describe the properties of a simple fault source and the second example shows the excerpt of an xml file used to describe the properties of a simple fault source that can be used to perform a PSHA calculation taking into account directivity effects.

 1<simpleFaultSource id="1" name="Mount Diablo Thrust"
2        tectonicRegion="Active Shallow Crust">
3      <simpleFaultGeometry>
4          <gml:LineString>
5              <gml:posList>
6                  -121.82290 37.73010
7                  -122.03880 37.87710
8              </gml:posList>
9          </gml:LineString>
10          <dip>45.0</dip>
11          <upperSeismoDepth>10.0</upperSeismoDepth>
12          <lowerSeismoDepth>20.0</lowerSeismoDepth>
13      </simpleFaultGeometry>
14      <magScaleRel>WC1994</magScaleRel>
15      <ruptAspectRatio>1.5</ruptAspectRatio>
16      <incrementalMFD minMag="5.0" binWidth="0.1">
17          <occurRates>0.0010614989 8.8291627E-4 7.3437777E-4 6.108288E-4
18                      5.080653E-4</occurRates>
19      </incrementalMFD>
20      <rake>30.0</rake>
21      <hypoList>
22          <hypo alongStrike="0.25" downDip="0.25" weight="0.25"/>
23          <hypo alongStrike="0.25" downDip="0.75" weight="0.25"/>
24          <hypo alongStrike="0.75" downDip="0.25" weight="0.25"/>
25          <hypo alongStrike="0.75" downDip="0.75" weight="0.25"/>
26      </hypoList>
27      <slipList>
28          <slip weight="0.333">0.0</slip>
29          <slip weight="0.333">45.0</slip>
30          <slip weight="0.334">90.0</slip>
31      </slipList>
32</simpleFaultSource>

 1<simpleFaultSource id="1" name="Mount Diablo Thrust"
2        tectonicRegion="Active Shallow Crust">
3     <simpleFaultGeometry>
4         <gml:LineString>
5             <gml:posList>
6                 -121.82290 37.73010
7                 -122.03880 37.87710
8             </gml:posList>
9         </gml:LineString>
10         <dip>45.0</dip>
11         <upperSeismoDepth>10.0</upperSeismoDepth>
12         <lowerSeismoDepth>20.0</lowerSeismoDepth>
13     </simpleFaultGeometry>
14     <magScaleRel>WC1994</magScaleRel>
15     <ruptAspectRatio>1.5</ruptAspectRatio>
16     <incrementalMFD minMag="5.0" binWidth="0.1">
17         <occurRates>0.0010614989 8.8291627E-4 7.3437777E-4 6.108288E-4
18                     5.080653E-4</occurRates>
19     </incrementalMFD>
20     <rake>30.0</rake>
21     <hypoList>
22         <hypo alongStrike="0.25" downDip="0.25" weight="0.25"/>
23         <hypo alongStrike="0.25" downDip="0.75" weight="0.25"/>
24         <hypo alongStrike="0.75" downDip="0.25" weight="0.25"/>
25         <hypo alongStrike="0.75" downDip="0.75" weight="0.25"/>
26     </hypoList>
27     <slipList>
28         <slip weight="0.333">0.0</slip>
29         <slip weight="0.333">45.0</slip>
30         <slip weight="0.334">90.0</slip>
31     </slipList>
32</simpleFaultSource>

##### 2.1.1.2.2. Complex Faults#

A complex fault differs from simple fault just by the way the geometry of the fault surface is defined and the fault surface is later created. The input parameters used to describe complex faults are, for the most part, the same used to describe the simple fault typology.

In the case of complex faults, the dip angle is not requested while the fault trace is substituted by two fault edges limiting the top and bottom of the fault surface. Additional curves lying over the fault surface can be specified to complement and refine the description of the fault surface geometry. Unlike the simple fault these edges are not required to be horizontal and may vary in elevation, i.e. the upper edge may represent the intersection between the exposed fault trace and the topographic surface, where positive values indicate below sea level, and negative values indicate above sea level.

Usually, we use complex faults to model intraplate megathrust faults such as the big subduction structures active in the Pacific (Sumatra, South America, Japan) but this source typology can be used also to create - for example - listric fault sources with a realistic geometry.

 1<complexFaultSource id="1" name="Cascadia Megathrust"
2                    tectonicRegion="Subduction Interface">
3    <complexFaultGeometry>
4        <faultTopEdge>
5            <gml:LineString>
6                <gml:posList>
7                    -124.704  40.363  0.5493260E+01
8                    -124.977  41.214  0.4988560E+01
9                    -125.140  42.096  0.4897340E+01
10                </gml:posList>
11            </gml:LineString>
12        </faultTopEdge>
13        <intermediateEdge>
14            <gml:LineString>
15                <gml:posList>
16                    -124.704  40.363  0.5593260E+01
17                    -124.977  41.214  0.5088560E+01
18                    -125.140  42.096  0.4997340E+01
19                </gml:posList>
20            </gml:LineString>
21        </intermediateEdge>
22        <intermediateEdge>
23            <gml:LineString>
24                <gml:posList>
25                    -124.704  40.363  0.5693260E+01
26                    -124.977  41.214  0.5188560E+01
27                    -125.140  42.096  0.5097340E+01
28                </gml:posList>
29            </gml:LineString>
30        </intermediateEdge>
31        <faultBottomEdge>
32            <gml:LineString>
33                <gml:posList>
34                    -123.829  40.347  0.2038490E+02
35                    -124.137  41.218  0.1741390E+02
36                    -124.252  42.115  0.1752740E+02
37                </gml:posList>
38            </gml:LineString>
39        </faultBottomEdge>
40    </complexFaultGeometry>
41    <magScaleRel>WC1994</magScaleRel>
42    <ruptAspectRatio>1.5</ruptAspectRatio>
43    <truncGutenbergRichterMFD aValue="-3.5" bValue="1.0" minMag="5.0"
44                              maxMag="6.5" />
45    <rake>30.0</rake>
46</complexFaultSource>


As with the previous examples, the red text highlights the parameters used to specify the source geometry, the parameters in green describe the rupture mechanism, the text in blue describes the magnitude-frequency distribution and the gray text describes the rupture properties.

#### 2.1.1.3. Fault sources without floating ruptures#

##### 2.1.1.3.1. Characteristic faults#

The characteristic fault source is a particular typology of fault created with the assumption that its ruptures will always cover the entire fault surface. As such, no floating is necessary on the surface. The characteristic fault may still take as input a magnitude frequency distribution. In this case, the fault surface can be represented either as a Simple Fault Source surface or as a Complex Fault Source surface or as a combination of rectangular ruptures as represented in Fig. 2.4. Mutiple surfaces containing mixed geometry types are also supported.

###### 2.1.1.3.1.1. Source data#
• The characteristic rupture surface is defined through one of the following options:

• A list of rectangular ruptures (“planar surfaces”)

• A Simple Fault Source geometry

• A Complex Fault Source geometry

• A Frequency-Magnitude Distribution.

• Rake angle (specified following the Aki-Richards convention; see Aki and Richards (2002)).

• Upper and lower depth values limiting the seismogenic interval.

A comprehensive example enumerating the possible rupture surface configurations is shown below.

 1<characteristicFaultSource id="5" name="characteristic source, simple fault"
2                           tectonicRegion="Volcanic">
3    <truncGutenbergRichterMFD aValue="-3.5" bValue="1.0"
4                              minMag="5.0" maxMag="6.5" />
5    <rake>30.0</rake>
6    <surface>
7        <!-- Characteristic Fault with a simple fault surface -->
8        <simpleFaultGeometry>
9            <gml:LineString>
10                <gml:posList>
11                    -121.82290 37.73010
12                    -122.03880 37.87710
13                </gml:posList>
14            </gml:LineString>
15            <dip>45.0</dip>
16            <upperSeismoDepth>10.0</upperSeismoDepth>
17            <lowerSeismoDepth>20.0</lowerSeismoDepth>
18        </simpleFaultGeometry>
19    </surface>
20</characteristicFaultSource>

 1<characteristicFaultSource id="6" name="characteristic source, complex fault"
2                           tectonicRegion="Volcanic">
3    <incrementalMFD minMag="5.0" binWidth="0.1">
4        <occurRates>0.0010614989 8.8291627E-4 7.3437777E-4</occurRates>
5    </incrementalMFD>
6    <rake>60.0</rake>
7    <surface>
8        <!-- Characteristic source with a complex fault surface -->
9        <complexFaultGeometry>
10            <faultTopEdge>
11                <gml:LineString>
12                    <gml:posList>
13                       -124.704  40.363  0.5493260E+01
14                       -124.977  41.214  0.4988560E+01
15                       -125.140  42.096  0.4897340E+01
16                    </gml:posList>
17                </gml:LineString>
18            </faultTopEdge>
19            <faultBottomEdge>
20                <gml:LineString>
21                    <gml:posList>
22                        -123.829  40.347  0.2038490E+02
23                        -124.137  41.218  0.1741390E+02
24                        -124.252  42.115  0.1752740E+02
25                    </gml:posList>
26                </gml:LineString>
27            </faultBottomEdge>
28        </complexFaultGeometry>
29    </surface>
30</characteristicFaultSource>

 1<characteristicFaultSource id="7" name="characteristic source, multi surface"
2                           tectonicRegion="Volcanic">
3    <truncGutenbergRichterMFD aValue="-3.6" bValue="1.0"
4                              minMag="5.2" maxMag="6.4" />
5    <rake>90.0</rake>
6    <surface>
7        <!-- Characteristic source with a collection of planar surfaces -->
8        <planarSurface>
9            <topLeft lon="-1.0" lat="1.0" depth="21.0" />
10            <topRight lon="1.0" lat="1.0" depth="21.0" />
11            <bottomLeft lon="-1.0" lat="-1.0" depth="59.0" />
12            <bottomRight lon="1.0" lat="-1.0" depth="59.0" />
13        </planarSurface>
14        <planarSurface strike="20.0" dip="45.0">
15             <topLeft lon="1.0" lat="1.0" depth="20.0" />
16             <topRight lon="3.0" lat="1.0" depth="20.0" />
17             <bottomLeft lon="1.0" lat="-1.0" depth="80.0" />
18             <bottomRight lon="3.0" lat="-1.0" depth="80.0" />
19         </planarSurface>
20    </surface>
21</characteristicFaultSource>


#### 2.1.1.4. Non-Parametric Sources#

##### 2.1.1.4.1. Non-Parametric Fault#

The non-parametric fault typology requires that the user indicates the rupture properties (rupture surface, magnitude, rake and hypocentre) and the corresponding probabilities of the rupture. The probabilities are given as a list of floating point values that correspond to the probabilities of $$0, 1, 2, \ldots ... N$$ occurrences of the rupture within the specified investigation time. Note that there is not, at present, any internal check to ensure that the investigation time to which the probabilities refer corresponds to that specified in the configuration file. As the surface of the rupture is set explicitly, no rupture floating occurs, and, as in the case of the characteristic fault source, the rupture surface can be defined as either a single planar rupture, a list of planar ruptures, a Simple Fault Source geometry, a Complex Fault Source geometry, or a combination of different geometries.

Comprehensive examples enumerating the possible configurations are shown below:

 1<nonParametricSeismicSource id="1" name="A Non Parametric Planar Source"
2                            tectonicRegion="Some TRT">
3    <singlePlaneRupture probs_occur="0.544 0.456">
4        <magnitude>8.3</magnitude>
5        <rake>90.0</rake>
6        <hypocenter depth="26.101" lat="40.726" lon="143.0"/>
7        <planarSurface>
8            <topLeft depth="9.0" lat="41.6" lon="143.1"/>
9            <topRight depth="9.0" lat="40.2" lon="143.91"/>
10            <bottomLeft depth="43.202" lat="41.252" lon="142.07"/>
11            <bottomRight depth="43.202" lat="39.852" lon="142.91"/>
12        </planarSurface>
13    </singlePlaneRupture>
14    <multiPlanesRupture probs_occur="0.9244 0.0756">
15        <magnitude>6.9</magnitude>
16        <rake>0.0</rake>
17        <hypocenter depth="7.1423" lat="35.296" lon="139.31"/>
18        <planarSurface>
19            <topLeft depth="2.0" lat="35.363" lon="139.16"/>
20            <topRight depth="2.0" lat="35.394" lon="138.99"/>
21            <bottomLeft depth="14.728" lat="35.475" lon="139.19"/>
22            <bottomRight depth="14.728" lat="35.505" lon="139.02"/>
23        </planarSurface>
24        <planarSurface>
25            <topLeft depth="2.0" lat="35.169" lon="139.34"/>
26            <topRight depth="2.0" lat="35.358" lon="139.17"/>
27            <bottomLeft depth="12.285" lat="35.234" lon="139.45"/>
28            <bottomRight depth="12.285" lat="35.423" lon="139.28"/>
29        </planarSurface>
30    </multiPlanesRupture>
31</nonParametricSeismicSource>

 1<nonParametricSeismicSource id="2" name="A Non Parametric (Simple) Source"
2                            tectonicRegion="Some TRT">
3    <simpleFaultRupture probs_occur="0.157 0.843">
4        <magnitude>7.8</magnitude>
5        <rake>90.0</rake>
6        <hypocenter depth="22.341" lat="43.624" lon="147.94"/>
7        <simpleFaultGeometry>
8            <gml:LineString>
9                <gml:posList>
10                    147.96 43.202
11                    148.38 43.438
12                    148.51 43.507
13                    148.68 43.603
14                    148.76 43.640
15                </gml:posList>
16            </gml:LineString>
17            <dip>30.0</dip>
18            <upperSeismoDepth>14.5</upperSeismoDepth>
19            <lowerSeismoDepth>35.5</lowerSeismoDepth>
20        </simpleFaultGeometry>
21    </simpleFaultRupture>
22</nonParametricSeismicSource>

 1<nonParametricSeismicSource id="3" name="A Non Parametric (Complex) Source"
2                            tectonicRegion="Some TRT">
3    <complexFaultRupture probs_occur="0.157 0.843">
4        <magnitude>7.8</magnitude>
5        <rake>90.0</rake>
6        <hypocenter depth="22.341" lat="43.624" lon="147.94"/>
7        <complexFaultGeometry>
8            <faultTopEdge>
9                <gml:LineString>
10                    <gml:posList>
11                        148.76 43.64 5.0
12                        148.68 43.603 5.0
13                        148.51 43.507 5.0
14                        148.38 43.438 5.0
15                        147.96 43.202 5.0
16                    </gml:posList>
17                </gml:LineString>
18            </faultTopEdge>
19            <faultBottomEdge>
20               <gml:LineString>
21                    <gml:posList>
22                        147.92 44.002 35.5
23                        147.81 43.946 35.5
24                        147.71 43.897 35.5
25                        147.5 43.803 35.5
26                        147.36 43.727 35.5
27                    </gml:posList>
28                </gml:LineString>
29            </faultBottomEdge>
30        </complexFaultGeometry>
31    </complexFaultRupture>
32</nonParametricSeismicSource>


### 2.1.2. Magnitude-frequency distributions#

The magnitude-frequency distributions currently supported by the OpenQuake engine are the following:

A discrete incremental magnitude-frequency distribution

It is the simplest distribution supported. It is defined by the minimum value of magnitude (representing the mid point of the first bin) and the bin width. The distribution itself is simply a sequence of floats describing the annual number of events for different bins. The maximum magnitude admitted by this magnitude-frequency distribution is just the sum of the minimum magnitude and the product of the bin width by the number annual rate values. Below we provide an example of the xml that should be incorporated in a seismic source description in order to define this Magnitude-Frequency Distribution.

1<incrementalMFD minMag="5.05" binWidth="0.1">
2    <occurRates>0.15 0.08 0.05 0.03 0.015</occurRates>
3</incrementalMFD>


The magnitude-frequency distribution obtained with the above parameters is represented in Fig. 2.5.

A double truncated Gutenberg-Richter distribution

This distribution is described by means of a minimum minMag and maximum magnitude maxMag and by the $$a$$ and $$b$$ values of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship.

The syntax of the xml used to describe this magnitude-frequency distribution is rather compact as demonstrated in the following example:

1<truncGutenbergRichterMFD aValue="5.0" bValue="1.0" minMag="5.0"
2                          maxMag="6.0"/>


Fig. 2.6 shows the magnitude-frequency distribution obtained using the parameters of the considered example.

Hybrid Characteristic earthquake model (à la (Youngs and Coppersmith 1985))

The hybrid characteristic earthquake model, presented by (Youngs and Coppersmith 1985), distributes seismic moment proportionally between a characteristic model (for larger magnitudes) and an exponential model. The rate of events is dependent on the magnitude of the characteristic earthquake, the b-value and the total moment rate of the system (Fig. 2.7). However, the total moment rate may be defined in one of two ways. If the total moment rate of the source is known, as may be the case for a fault surface with known area and slip rate, then the distribution can be defined from the total moment rate (in N-m) of the source directly. Alternatively, the distribution can be defined from the rate of earthquakes in the characteristic bin, which may be preferable if the distribution is determined from observed seismicity behaviour. The option to define the distribution according to the total moment rate is input as:

1<YoungsCoppersmithMFD minmag="5.0" bValue="1.0" binWidth="0.1"
2                      characteristicMag="7.0" totalMomentRate="1.05E19"/>


whereas the option to define the distribution from the rate of the characteristic events is given as:

1<YoungsCoppersmithMFD minmag="5.0" bValue="1.0" binWidth="0.1"
2                      characteristicMag="7.0" characteristicRate="0.005"/>


Note that in this distribution the width of the magnitude bin must be defined explicitly in the model.

“Arbitrary” Magnitude Frequency Distribution

The arbitrary magnitude frequency distribution is another non-parametric form of MFD, in which the rates are defined explicitly. Here, the magnitude frequency distribution is defined by a list of magnitudes and their corresponding rates of occurrence. There is no bin-width as the rates correspond exactly to the specific magnitude. Unlike the evenly discretised MFD, there is no requirement that the magnitudes be equally spaced. This distribution (illustrated in Fig. 2.8) can be input as:

1<arbitraryMFD>
2    <occurRates>0.12 0.036 0.067 0.2</occurRates>
3    <magnitudes>8.1 8.47 8.68 9.02</magnitude>
4</arbitraryMFD>


### 2.1.3. Magnitude-scaling relationships#

We provide below a list of the magnitude-area scaling relationships implemented in the OpenQuake hazard library (oq-hazardlib):

#### 2.1.3.1. Relationships for shallow earthquakes in active tectonic regions#

• (Wells and Coppersmith 1994) - One of the most well known magnitude scaling relationships, based on a global database of historical earthquake ruptures. The implemented relationship is the one linking magnitude to rupture area, and is called with the keyword WC1994

#### 2.1.3.2. Magnitude-scaling relationships for subduction earthquakes#

• (Strasser, Arango, and Bommer 2010) - Defines several magnitude scaling relationships for interface and in-slab earthquakes. Only the magnitude to rupture-area scaling relationships are implemented here, and are called with the keywords StrasserInterface and StrasserIntraslab respectively.

• (Thingbaijam, Mai, and Goda 2017) - Define magnitude scaling relationships for interface. Only the magnitude to rupture-area scaling relationships are implemented here, and are called with the keywords ThingbaijamInterface.

#### 2.1.3.3. Magnitude-scaling relationships stable continental regions#

• (EPRI 2011) - Defines a single magnitude to rupture-area scaling relationship for use in the central and eastern United States: $$Area = 10.0^{M_W - 4.336}$$. It is called with the keyword CEUS2011

#### 2.1.3.4. Miscellaneous Magnitude-Scaling Relationships#

• PeerMSR defines a simple magnitude scaling relation used as part of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center verification of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis programs: $$Area = 10.0 ^{M_W - 4.0}$$.

• PointMSR approximates a ‘point’ source by returning an infinitesimally small area for all magnitudes. Should only be used for distributed seismicity sources and not for fault sources.

### 2.1.4. Calculation workflows#

The hazard component of the OpenQuake engine can compute seismic hazard using various approaches. Three types of analysis are currently supported:

• Classical Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), allowing calculation of hazard curves and hazard maps following the classical integration procedure ((Cornell 1968), McGuire (1976)) as formulated by (Field, Jordan, and Cornell 2003).

• Event-Based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, allowing calculation of ground-motion fields from stochastic event sets. Traditional results - such as hazard curves - can be obtained by post- processing the set of computed ground-motion fields.

• Scenario Based Seismic Hazard Analysis, allowing the calculation of ground motion fields from a single earthquake rupture scenario taking into account ground motion aleatory variability. The ground motion fields can be conditioned to observed data, when available.

Each workflow has a modular structure, so that intermediate results can be exported and analyzed. Each calculator can be extended independently of the others so that additional calculation options and methodologies can be easily introduced, without affecting the overall calculation workflow.

#### 2.1.4.1. Classical Probabilistic Seismic Hazard#

Analysis Input data for the classical Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis consist of a PSHA input model provided together with calculation settings.

The main calculators used to perform this analysis are the following:

1. Logic Tree Processor

The Logic Tree Processor (LTP) takes as an input the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis Input Model and creates a Seismic Source Model. The LTP uses the information in the Initial Seismic Source Models and the Seismic Source Logic Tree to create a Seismic Source Input Model (i.e. a model describing geometry and activity rates of each source without any epistemic uncertainty).

Following a procedure similar to the one just described the Logic Tree Processor creates a Ground Motion model (i.e. a data structure that associates to each tectonic region considered in the calculation a Ground Motion Prediction Equation).

2. Earthquake Rupture Forecast Calculator

The produced Seismic Source Input Model becomes an input information for the Earthquake Rupture Forecast (ERF) calculator which creates a list earthquake ruptures admitted by the source model, each one characterized by a probability of occurrence over a specified time span.

3. Classical PSHA Calculator

The classical PSHA calculator uses the ERF and the Ground Motion model to compute hazard curves on each site specified in the calculation settings.

#### 2.1.4.2. Event-Based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard#

Analysis Input data for the Event-Based PSHA - as in the case of the Classical Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis calculator - consists of a PSHA Input Model and a set of calculation settings.

The main calculators used to perform this analysis are:

1. Logic Tree Processor

The Logic Tree Processor works in the same way described in the description of the Classical Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis workflow (see Section  Classical PSHA).

2. Earthquake Rupture Forecast Calculator

The Earthquake Rupture Forecast Calculator was already introduced in the description of the PSHA workflow (see Section  Classical PSHA).

3. Stochastic Event Set Calculator

The Stochastic Event Set Calculator generates a collection of stochastic event sets by sampling the ruptures contained in the ERF according to their probability of occurrence.

A Stochastic Event Set (SES) thus represents a potential realisation of the seismicity (i.e. a list of ruptures) produced by the set of seismic sources considered in the analysis over the time span fixed for the calculation of hazard.

4. Ground Motion Field Calculator

The Ground Motion Field Calculator computes for each event contained in a Stochastic Event Set a realization of the geographic distribution of the shaking by taking into account the aleatory uncertainties in the ground- motion model. Eventually, the Ground Motion Field calculator can consider the spatial correlation of the ground-motion during the generation of the Ground Motion Field.

5. Event-based PSHA Calculator

The event-based PSHA calculator takes a (large) set of ground-motion fields representative of the possible shaking scenarios that the investigated area can experience over a (long) time span and for each site computes the corresponding hazard curve.

This procedure is computationally intensive and is not recommended for investigating the hazard over large areas.

#### 2.1.4.3. Scenario based Seismic Hazard Analysis#

In case of Scenario Based Seismic Hazard Analysis, the engine simulates a set of ground motion fields (GMFs) at the target sites for the requested set of intensity measure types. This set of GMFs can then be used in Scenario Damage Assessment and Scenario Risk Assessment to estimate the distribution of potential damage, economic losses, fatalities, and other consequences. The scenario calculator is useful for simulating both historical and hypothetical earthquakes.

In case of Scenario Based Seismic Hazard Analysis, The input data consist of a single earthquake rupture model and one or more ground-motion models (GSIMs). Using the Ground Motion Field Calculator, multiple realizations of ground shaking can be computed, each realization sampling the aleatory uncertainties in the ground-motion model. The main calculator used to perform this analysis is the Ground Motion Field Calculator, which was already introduced during the description of the event based PSHA workflow (see Section  Event based PSHA).

Starting from OpenQuake engine v3.16, it is possible to condition the ground shaking to observations, such as ground motion recordings and macroseismic intensity observations. The simulated ground motion fields are cross-spatially correlated, and can reduce considerably the uncertainty and bias in the resulting loss and damage estimates. The implementation of the conditioning of ground motion fields in the engine was performed following closely the procedure proposed by Engler et al. (2022).

As the scenario calculator does not need to determine the probability of occurrence of the specific rupture, but only sufficient information to parameterise the location (as a three-dimensional surface), the magnitude and the style-of-faulting of the rupture, a more simplified NRML structure is sufficient compared to the source model structures described previously in Source typologies. A rupture model XML can be defined in the following formats:

1. Simple Fault Rupture - in which the geometry is defined by the trace of the fault rupture, the dip and the upper and lower seismogenic depths. An example is shown in the listing below:

 1      <?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
2      <nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
3            xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5">
4
5          <simpleFaultRupture>
6            <magnitude>6.7</magnitude>
7            <rake>180.0</rake>
8            <hypocenter lon="-122.02750" lat="37.61744" depth="6.7"/>
9            <simpleFaultGeometry>
10              <gml:LineString>
11                <gml:posList>
12                  -121.80236 37.39713
13                  -121.91453 37.48312
14                  -122.00413 37.59493
15                  -122.05088 37.63995
16                  -122.09226 37.68095
17                  -122.17796 37.78233
18                </gml:posList>
19              </gml:LineString>
20              <dip>76.0</dip>
21              <upperSeismoDepth>0.0</upperSeismoDepth>
22              <lowerSeismoDepth>13.4</lowerSeismoDepth>
23            </simpleFaultGeometry>
24          </simpleFaultRupture>
25
26      </nrml>

2. Planar & Multi-Planar Rupture - in which the geometry is defined as a collection of one or more rectangular planes, each defined by four corners. An example of a multi-planar rupture is shown below in the listing below:

 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
3      xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5">
4
5    <multiPlanesRupture>
6        <magnitude>8.0</magnitude>
7        <rake>90.0</rake>
8        <hypocenter lat="-1.4" lon="1.1" depth="10.0"/>
9            <planarSurface strike="90.0" dip="45.0">
10                <topLeft lon="-0.8" lat="-2.3" depth="0.0" />
11                <topRight lon="-0.4" lat="-2.3" depth="0.0" />
12                <bottomLeft lon="-0.8" lat="-2.3890" depth="10.0" />
13                <bottomRight lon="-0.4" lat="-2.3890" depth="10.0" />
14            </planarSurface>
15            <planarSurface strike="30.94744" dip="30.0">
16                <topLeft lon="-0.42" lat="-2.3" depth="0.0" />
17                <topRight lon="-0.29967" lat="-2.09945" depth="0.0" />
18                <bottomLeft lon="-0.28629" lat="-2.38009" depth="10.0" />
19                <bottomRight lon="-0.16598" lat="-2.17955" depth="10.0" />
20            </planarSurface>
21    </multiPlanesRupture>
22
23</nrml>

3. Complex Fault Rupture - in which the geometry is defined by the upper, lower and (if applicable) intermediate edges of the fault rupture. An example of a complex fault rupture is shown below in the listing below:

 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
3      xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5">
4
5    <complexFaultRupture>
6        <magnitude>8.0</magnitude>
7        <rake>90.0</rake>
8        <hypocenter lat="-1.4" lon="1.1" depth="10.0"/>
9        <complexFaultGeometry>
10            <faultTopEdge>
11                <gml:LineString>
12                    <gml:posList>
13                        0.6 -1.5 2.0
14                        1.0 -1.3 5.0
15                        1.5 -1.0 8.0
16                    </gml:posList>
17                </gml:LineString>
18            </faultTopEdge>
19            <intermediateEdge>
20                <gml:LineString>
21                    <gml:posList>
22                        0.65 -1.55 4.0
23                        1.1  -1.4  10.0
24                        1.5  -1.2  20.0
25                    </gml:posList>
26                </gml:LineString>
27            </intermediateEdge>
28            <faultBottomEdge>
29                <gml:LineString>
30                    <gml:posList>
31                        0.65 -1.7 8.0
32                        1.1  -1.6 15.0
33                        1.5  -1.7 35.0
34                    </gml:posList>
35                </gml:LineString>
36            </faultBottomEdge>
37        </complexFaultGeometry>
38    </complexFaultRupture>
39
40</nrml>


## 2.2. Using the Hazard Module#

This Chapter summarises the structure of the information necessary to define a PSHA input model to be used with the OpenQuake engine.

Input data for probabilistic based seismic hazard analysis (Classical, Event based, Disaggregation, and Uniform Hazard Spectra) are organised into:

• A general configuration file.

• A file describing the Seismic Source System, that is the set of initial source models and associated epistemic uncertainties needed to model the seismic activity in the region of interest.

• A file describing the Ground Motion System, that is the set of ground motion prediction equations, per tectonic region type, needed to model the ground motion shaking in the region of interest.

Fig. 2.9 summarises the structure of a PSHA input model for the OpenQuake engine and the relationships between the different files.

### 2.2.1. Defining Logic Trees#

The main components of a logic tree structure in the OpenQuake engine are the following:

Branch

: the simplest component of a logic tree structure. A Branch represent a possible interpretation of a value assignment for a specific type of uncertainty. It is fully described by the tuple (parameter or model, weight).

Branching set

: it is a key component in the logic tree structure used by the OpenQuake engine. It groups a set of branches i.e. alternative interpretations of a parameter or a model. Each branching set is defined by:

This set of uncertainties can be applied to the whole initial seismic source input model or just to a subset of seismic sources. The sum of the weights/probabilities assigned to the set of branches always correspond to one.

Below we provide a simple schema illustrating the skeleton of xml file containing the desciption of a logic tree:

1    <logicTreeBranchSet branchSetID=ID
2                        uncertaintyType=TYPE>
3        <logicTreeBranch>
4            <uncertaintyModel>VALUE</uncertaintyModel>
5            <uncertaintyWeight>WEIGHT</uncertaintyWeight>
6        </logicTreeBranch>
7    </logicTreeBranchSet>


As it appears from this example, the structure of a logic tree is a set of nested elements.

A schematic representation of the elemental components of a logic tree structure is provided in Fig. 2.10. A Branch set identifies a collection of branches (i.e. individual branches) whose weights sum to 1.

#### 2.2.1.1. Logic trees as described in the nrml schema#

In the NRML schema, a logic tree structure is defined through the logicTree element:

1<logicTree logicTreeID="ID">
2...
3</logicTree>


A logicTree contains as a sequence of logicTreeBranchSet elements.

There are no restrictions on the number of Branch set that can be defined.

Each logicTreeBranchSet has two required attributes: branchSetID and uncertaintyType. The latter defines the type of epistemic uncertainty this Branch set is describing.

 1<logicTree logicTreeID="ID">
2             <logicTreeBranchSet branchSetID="ID_1"
3                     uncertaintyType="UNCERTAINTY_TYPE">
4                     ...
5             </logicTreeBranchSet>
6             <logicTreeBranchSet branchSetID="ID_2"
7                     uncertaintyType="UNCERTAINTY_TYPE">
8                     ...
9             </logicTreeBranchSet>
10             ...
11             <logicTreeBranchSet branchSetID="ID_N"
12                     uncertaintyType="UNCERTAINTY_TYPE">
13                     ...
14             </logicTreeBranchSet>
15...
16</logicTree>


Possible values for the uncertaintyType attribute are:

• gmpeModel: indicates epistemic uncertainties on ground motion prediction equations

• sourceModel: indicates epistemic uncertainties on source models

• maxMagGRRelative: indicates relative (i.e. increments) epistemic uncertainties to be added (or subtracted, depending on the sign of the increment) to the Gutenberg-Richter maximum magnitude value.

• bGRRelative: indicates relative epistemic uncertainties to be applied to the Gutenberg-Richter b value.

• abGRAbsolute: indicates absolute (i.e. values used to replace original values) epistemic uncertainties on the Gutenberg-Richter a and b values.

• maxMagGRAbsolute: indicates (absolute) epistemic uncertainties on the Gutenberg-Richter maximum magnitude.

• incrementalMFDAbsolute: indicates (absolute) epistemic uncertainties on the incremental magnitude frequency distribution (i.e. alternative rates and/or minimum magnitude) of a specific source (can only be applied to individual sources)

• simpleFaultGeometryAbsolute: indicates alternative representations of the simple fault geometry for an individual simple fault source

• simpleFaultDipRelative: indicates a relative increase or decrease in fault dip for one or more simple fault sources

• simpleFaultDipAbsolute: indicates alternative values of fault dip for one or more simple fault sources

• complexFaultGeometryAbsolute: indicates alternative representations of complex fault geometry for an individual complex fault source

• characteristicFaultGeometryAbsolute: indicates alternative representations of the characteristic fault geometry for an individual characteristic fault source

A branchSet is defined as a sequence of logicTreeBranch elements, each specified by an uncertaintyModel element (a string identifying an uncertainty model; the content of the string varies with the uncertaintyType attribute value of the branchSet element) and the uncertaintyWeight element (specifying the probability/weight associated to the uncertaintyModel):

 1< logicTree  logicTreeID="ID">
2...
3
4             < logicTreeBranchSet  branchSetID="ID_#"
5                             uncertaintyType="UNCERTAINTY_TYPE">
6                     < logicTreeBranch  branchID="ID_1">
7                             <uncertaintyModel>
8                                 UNCERTAINTY_MODEL
9                             </uncertaintyModel>
10                             <uncertaintyWeight>
11                                 UNCERTAINTY_WEIGHT
12                             </uncertaintyWeight>
13                     </ logicTreeBranch >
14                     ...
15                     < logicTreeBranch  branchID="ID_N">
16                             <uncertaintyModel>
17                                 UNCERTAINTY_MODEL
18                             </uncertaintyModel>
19                             <uncertaintyWeight>
20                                 UNCERTAINTY_WEIGHT
21                             </uncertaintyWeight>
22                     </logicTreeBranch>
23             </logicTreeBranchSet>
24...
25</logicTree >


Depending on the uncertaintyType the content of the <uncertaintyModel> element changes:

• if uncertaintyType="gmpeModel", the uncertainty model contains the name of a ground motion prediction equation (a list of available GMPEs can be obtained using oq info gsims and these are also documented at: http://docs.openquake.org/oq-engine/stable/openquake.hazardlib.gsim.html):

<uncertaintyModel>GMPE_NAME</uncertaintyModel>

• if uncertaintyType="sourceModel", the uncertainty model contains the paths to a source model file, e.g.:

1<uncertaintyModel>SOURCE_MODEL_FILE_PATH</uncertaintyModel>

• if uncertaintyType="maxMagGRRelative", the uncertainty model contains the increment to be added (or subtracted, depending on the sign) to the Gutenberg-Richter maximum magnitude:

<uncertaintyModel>MAX_MAGNITUDE_INCREMENT</uncertaintyModel>

• if uncertaintyType="bGRRelative", the uncertainty model contains the increment to be added (or subtracted, depending on the sign) to the Gutenberg-Richter b value:

<uncertaintyModel>B_VALUE_INCREMENT</uncertaintyModel>

• if uncertaintyType="abGRAbsolute", the uncertainty model must contain one a and b pair:

<uncertaintyModel>A_VALUE B_VALUE</uncertaintyModel>

• if uncertaintyType="maxMagGRAbsolute", the uncertainty model must contain one Gutenberg-Richter maximum magnitude value:

<uncertaintyModel>MAX_MAGNITUDE</uncertaintyModel>

• if uncertaintyType="incrementalMFDAbsolute", the uncertainty model must contain an instance of the incremental MFD node:

1<uncertaintyModel>
2    <incrementalMFD
3        minMag="MIN MAGNITUDE"
4        binWidth="BIN WIDTH">
5        <occurRates>RATE_1 RATE_2 ... RATE_N</occurRates>
6    </incrementalMFD>
7</uncertaintyModel>

• if uncertaintyType="simpleFaultGeometryAbsolute" then the uncertainty model must contain a valid instance of the simpleFaultGeometry node as described in section Simple Faults

• if uncertaintyType="simpleFaultDipRelative" then the uncertainty model must specify the number of degrees to increase (positive) or decrease (negative) the fault dip. Note that if this increase results in an adjusted fault dip greater than $$90^{\circ}$$ or less than $$0^{\circ}$$ an error will occur.

<uncertaintyModel>DIP_INCREMENT</uncertaintyModel>

• if uncertaintyType="simpleFaultDipAbsolute" then the uncertainty model must specify the dip angle (in degrees)

<uncertaintyModel>DIP</uncertaintyModel>

• if uncertaintyType="complexFaultGeometryAbsolute" then the uncertainty model must contain a valid instance of the complexFaultGeometry source node as described in section Complex Faults

• if uncertaintyType="characteristicFaultGeometryAbsolute" then the uncertainty model must contain a valid instance of the characteristicFaultGeometry source node, as described in section Characteristic faults

There are no restrictions on the number of logicTreeBranch elements that can be defined in a logicTreeBranchSet, as long as the uncertainty weights sum to 1.0.

The logicTreeBranchSet element offers also a number of optional attributes allowing for complex tree definitions:

• applyToBranches: specifies to which logicTreeBranch elements (one or more), in the previous Branch sets, the Branch set is linked to. The linking is established by defining the IDs of the branches to link to:

applyToBranches="branchID1 branchID2 .... branchIDN"


The default is the keyword ALL, which means that a Branch set is by default linked to all branches in the previous Branch set. By specifying one or more branches to which the Branch set links to, non- symmetric logic trees can be defined.

• applyToSources: specifies to which source in a source model the uncertainty applies to. Sources are specified in terms of their IDs:

applyToSources="srcID1 srcID2 .... srcIDN"

• applyToTectonicRegionType: specifies to which tectonic region type the uncertainty applies to. Only one tectonic region type can be defined (Active Shallow Crust, Stable Shallow Crust, Subduction Interface, Subduction IntraSlab, Volcanic), e.g.:

applyToTectonicRegionType="Active Shallow Crust"


### 2.2.2. The Seismic Source System#

The Seismic Source System contains the model (or the models) describing position, geometry and activity of seismic sources of engineering importance for a set of sites as well as the possible epistemic uncertainties to be incorporated into the calculation of seismic hazard.

#### 2.2.2.1. The Seismic Source Logic Tree#

The structure of the Seismic Source Logic Tree consists of at least one Branch Set. The example provided below shows the simplest Seismic Source Logic Tree structure that can be defined in a Psha Input Model for OpenQuake engine. It’s a logic tree with just onebranchset with one Branch used to define the initial seismic source model (its weight will be equal to one).

 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
3      xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5">
4    <logicTree logicTreeID="lt1">
5            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="sourceModel"
6                                branchSetID="bs1">
7                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b1">
8                    <uncertaintyModel>seismic_source_model.xml
9                    </uncertaintyModel>
10                    <uncertaintyWeight>1.0</uncertaintyWeight>
11                </logicTreeBranch>
12            </logicTreeBranchSet>
13    </logicTree>
14</nrml>


The optional branching levels will contain rules that modify parameters of the sources in the initial seismic source model.

For example, if the epistemic uncertainties to be considered are source geometry and maximum magnitude, the modeller can create a logic tree structure with three initial seismic source models (each one exploring a different definition of the geometry of sources) and one branching level accounting for the epistemic uncertainty on the maximum magnitude.

Below we provide an example of such logic tree structure. Note that the uncertainty on the maximum magnitude is specified in terms of relative increments with respect to the initial maximum magnitude defined for each source in the initial seismic source models.

 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
3      xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5">
4    <logicTree logicTreeID="lt1">
5
6            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="sourceModel"
7                                branchSetID="bs1">
8                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b1">
9                    <uncertaintyModel>seismic_source_model_A.xml
10                    </uncertaintyModel>
11                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.2</uncertaintyWeight>
12                </logicTreeBranch>
13                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b2">
14                    <uncertaintyModel>seismic_source_model_B.xml
15                    </uncertaintyModel>
16                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.3</uncertaintyWeight>
17                </logicTreeBranch>
18                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b3">
19                    <uncertaintyModel>seismic_source_model_C.xml
20                    </uncertaintyModel>
21                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.5</uncertaintyWeight>
22                </logicTreeBranch>
23            </logicTreeBranchSet>
24
25            <logicTreeBranchSet branchSetID="bs21"
26                    uncertaintyType="maxMagGRRelative">
27                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b211">
28                    <uncertaintyModel>+0.0</uncertaintyModel>
29                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.6</uncertaintyWeight>
30                </logicTreeBranch>
31                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b212">
32                    <uncertaintyModel>+0.5</uncertaintyModel>
33                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.4</uncertaintyWeight>
34                </logicTreeBranch>
35            </logicTreeBranchSet>
36
37    </logicTree>
38</nrml>


Starting from OpenQuake engine v2.4, it is also possible to split a source model into several files and read them as if they were a single file. The file names for the different files comprising a source model should be provided in the source model logic tree file. For instance, a source model could be split by tectonic region using the following syntax in the source model logic tree:

 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
3      xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5">
4    <logicTree logicTreeID="lt1">
5            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="sourceModel"
6                                branchSetID="bs1">
7                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b1">
8                    <uncertaintyModel>
9                     active_shallow_sources.xml
10                     stable_shallow_sources.xml
11                    </uncertaintyModel>
12                    <uncertaintyWeight>1.0</uncertaintyWeight>
13                </logicTreeBranch>
14            </logicTreeBranchSet>
15    </logicTree>
16</nrml>


#### 2.2.2.2. The Seismic Source Model#

The structure of the xml file representing the seismic source model corresponds to a list of sources, each one modelled using one out of the five typologies currently supported. Below we provide a schematic example of a seismic source model:

 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
3      xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5">
4    <logicTree logicTreeID="lt1">
5            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="sourceModel"
6                                branchSetID="bs1">
7                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b1">
8                    <uncertaintyModel>seismic_source_model.xml
9                    </uncertaintyModel>
10                    <uncertaintyWeight>1.0</uncertaintyWeight>
11                </logicTreeBranch>
12            </logicTreeBranchSet>
13    </logicTree>
14</nrml>


### 2.2.3. The Ground Motion System#

The Ground Motion System defines the models and the possible epistemic uncertainties related to ground motion modelling to be incorporated into the calculation.

#### 2.2.3.1. The Ground Motion Logic Tree#

The structure of the Ground Motion Logic Tree consists of a list of ground motion prediction equations for each tectonic region used to characterise the sources in the PSHA input model.

The example below in shows a simple Ground Motion Logic Tree. This logic tree assumes that all the sources in the PSHA input model belong to “Active Shallow Crust” and uses for calculation the B. S.-J. Chiou and Youngs (2008) Ground Motion Prediction Equation.

 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
3      xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5">
4    <logicTree logicTreeID="lt1">
5            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="gmpeModel"
6                    branchSetID="bs1"
7                    applyToTectonicRegionType="Active Shallow Crust">
8
9                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b1">
10                    <uncertaintyModel>
11                    ChiouYoungs2008
12                    </uncertaintyModel>
13                    <uncertaintyWeight>1.0</uncertaintyWeight>
14                </logicTreeBranch>
15
16            </logicTreeBranchSet>
17    </logicTree>
18</nrml>


### 2.2.4. Configuration file#

The configuration file is the primary file controlling both the definition of the input model as well as parameters governing the calculation. We illustrate in the following different examples of the configuration file addressing different types of seismic hazard calculations.

#### 2.2.4.1. Classical PSHA#

In the following we describe the overall structure and the most typical parameters of a configuration file to be used for the computation of a seismic hazard map using a classical PSHA methodology.

Calculation type and model info

1[general]
2description = A demo OpenQuake-engine .ini file for classical PSHA
3calculation_mode = classical
4random_seed = 1024


In this section the user specifies the following parameters:

• description: a parameter that can be used to designate the model

• calculation_mode: it is used to set the kind of calculation. In this case it corresponds to classical. Alternative options for the calculation_mode are described later in this manual.

• random_seed: is used to control the random generator so that when Monte Carlo procedures are used calculations are replicable (if the same random_seed is used you get exactly the same results).

Geometry of the area (or the sites) where hazard is computed

This section is used to specify where the hazard will be computed. Two options are available:

The first option is to define a polygon (usually a rectangle) and a distance (in km) to be used to discretize the polygon area. The polygon is defined by a list of longitude-latitude tuples.

An example is provided below:

5[geometry]
6region = 10.0 43.0, 12.0 43.0, 12.0 46.0, 10.0 46.0
7region_grid_spacing = 10.0


The second option allows the definition of a number of sites where the hazard will be computed. Each site is specified in terms of a longitude, latitude tuple. Optionally, if the user wants to consider the elevation of the sites, a value of depth [km] can also be specified, where positive values indicate below sea level, and negative values indicate above sea level (i.e. the topographic surface). If no value of depth is given for a site, it is assumed to be zero. An example is provided below:

8[geometry]
9sites = 10.0 43.0, 12.0 43.0, 12.0 46.0, 10.0 46.0


If the list of sites is too long the user can specify the name of a csv file as shown below:

10[geometry]
11sites_csv = <name_of_the_csv_file>


The format of the csv file containing the list of sites is a sequence of points (one per row) specified in terms of the longitude, latitude tuple. Depth values are again optional. An example is provided below:

179.0,90.0
178.0,89.0
177.0,88.0


Logic tree sampling

The OpenQuake engine provides two options for processing the whole logic tree structure. The first option uses Montecarlo sampling; the user in this case specifies a number of realizations.

In the second option all the possible realizations are created. Below we provide an example for the latter option. In this case we set the number_of_logic_tree_samples to 0. OpenQuake engine will perform a complete enumeration of all the possible paths from the roots to the leaves of the logic tree structure.

12[logic_tree]
13number_of_logic_tree_samples = 0


If the seismic source logic tree and the ground motion logic tree do not contain epistemic uncertainties the engine will create a single PSHA input.

Generation of the earthquake rupture forecast

14[erf]
15rupture_mesh_spacing = 5
16width_of_mfd_bin = 0.1
17area_source_discretization = 10


This section of the configuration file is used to specify the level of discretization of the mesh representing faults, the grid used to delineate the area sources and, the magnitude-frequency distribution. Note that the smaller is the mesh spacing (or the bin width) the larger are (1) the precision in the calculation and (2) the computation demand.

In cases where the source model may contain a mixture of simple and complex ruptures it is possible to define a different rupture mesh spacing for complex faults only. This may be helpful in models that permit floating ruptures over large subduction sources, in which the nearest source to site distances may be larger than 20 - 30 km, and for which a small mesh spacing would produce a very large number of ruptures. The spacing for complex faults only can be configured by the line:

18complex_fault_mesh_spacing = 10


Parameters describing site conditions

18[site_params]
19reference_vs30_type = measured
20reference_vs30_value = 760.0
21reference_depth_to_2pt5km_per_sec = 5.0
22reference_depth_to_1pt0km_per_sec = 100.0


In this section the user specifies local soil conditions. The simplest solution is to define uniform site conditions (i.e. all the sites have the same characteristics).

Alternatively it is possible to define spatially variable soil properties in a separate file; the engine will then assign to each investigation location the values of the closest point used to specify site conditions.

23[site_params]
24site_model_file = site_model.csv


The file containing the site model has the following structure:

lon,lat,vs30,z1pt0,z2pt5,vs30measured,backarc
10.0,40.0,800.0,19.367196734,0.588625072259,0,0
10.1,40.0,800.0,19.367196734,0.588625072259,0,0
10.2,40.0,800.0,19.367196734,0.588625072259,0,0
10.3,40.0,800.0,19.367196734,0.588625072259,0,0
10.4,40.0,800.0,19.367196734,0.588625072259,0,0


Notice that the $$0$$ for the field vs30measured means that the vs30 field is inferred, not measured. Most of the GMPEs are not sensitive to it, so you can usually skip it. For the backarc parameter $$0$$ means false and this is the default, so you can skip such column. All columns that have defaults or are not needed by the GMPEs you are using can be skipped, while you will get an error if a relevant column is missing.

If the closest available site with soil conditions is at a distance greater than 5 km from the investigation location, a warning is generated.

Note: For backward-compatibility reasons, the site model file can also be given in XML format. That old format is deprecated but there are no plans to remove it any soon.

Calculation configuration

25[calculation]
26source_model_logic_tree_file = source_model_logic_tree.xml
27gsim_logic_tree_file = gmpe_logic_tree.xml
28investigation_time = 50.0
29intensity_measure_types_and_levels = {"PGA": [0.005, ..., 2.13]}
30truncation_level = 3
31maximum_distance = 200.0


This section of the OpenQuake engine configuration file specifies the parameters that are relevant for the calculation of hazard. These include the names of the two files containing the Seismic Source System and the Ground Motion System, the duration of the time window used to compute the hazard, the ground motion intensity measure types and levels for which the probability of exceedence will be computed, the level of truncation of the Gaussian distribution of the logarithm of ground motion used in the calculation of hazard and the maximum integration distance (i.e. the distance within which sources will contribute to the computation of the hazard).

The maximum distance refers to the largest distance between a rupture and the target calculation sites in order for the rupture to be considered in the PSHA calculation. This can be input directly in terms of kilometres (as above). There may be cases, however, in which it may be appropriate to have a different maximum source to site distance depending on the tectonic region type. This may be used, for example, to eliminate the impact of small, very far-field sources in regions of high attenuation (in which case maximum distance is reduced), or conversely it may be raised to allow certain source types to contribute to the hazard at greater distances (such as in the case when the region has lower attenuation). An example configuration for a maximum distance in Active Shallow Crust of 150 km, and in Stable Continental Crust of 200 km, is shown below:

31maximum_distance = {'Active Shallow Crust': 150.0,
32                    'Stable Continental Crust': 200.0}


Output

31[output]
32export_dir = outputs/
33# given the specified intensity_measure_types_and_levels
34mean = true
35quantiles = 0.1 0.5 0.9
36uniform_hazard_spectra = false
37poes = 0.1


The final section of the configuration file is the one that contains the parameters controlling the types of output to be produced. Providing an export directory will tell OpenQuake where to place the output files when the --exports flag is used when running the program. Setting mean to true will result in a specific output containing the mean curves of the logic tree, likewise quantiles will produce separate files containing the quantile hazard curves at the quantiles listed (0.1, 0.5 and 0.9 in the example above, leave blank or omit if no quantiles are required). Setting uniform_hazard_spectra to true will output the uniform hazard spectra at the same probabilities of exceedence (poes) as those specified by the later option poes. The probabilities specified here correspond to the set investigation time. Specifying poes will output hazard maps. For more information about the outputs of the calculation, see the section: “Description of hazard output” (page ).

#### 2.2.4.2. Seismic hazard disaggregation#

In this section we describe the structure of the configuration file to be used to complete a seismic hazard disaggregation. Since only a few parts of the standard configuration file need to be changed we can use the description given in Section  Classical PSHA as a reference and we emphasize herein major differences.

1[general]
2description = A demo .ini file for PSHA disaggregation
3calculation_mode = disaggregation
4random_seed = 1024


The calculation mode parameter in this case is set as disaggregation.

Geometry of the area (or the sites) where hazard is computed

5[geometry]
6sites = 11.0 44.5


In the section it is necessary to specify the geographic coordinates of the site(s) where the disaggregation will be performed. The coordinates of multiple site should be separated with a comma.

Disaggregation parameters

The disaggregation parameters need to be added to the the standard configuration file. They are shown in the following example and a description of each parameter is provided below.

 7[disaggregation]
8poes_disagg = 0.02, 0.1
9mag_bin_width = 1.0
10distance_bin_width = 25.0
11coordinate_bin_width = 1.5
12num_epsilon_bins = 3
13disagg_outputs = Mag_Dist_Eps Mag_Lon_Lat
14num_rlzs_disagg = 3

• poes_disagg: disaggregation is performed for the intensity measure levels corresponding to the probability of exceedance value(s) provided here. The computations use the investigation_time and the intensity_measure_types_and_levels defined in the “Calculation configuration” section. For the poes_disagg the intensity measure level(s) for the disaggregation are inferred by performing a classical calculation and by inverting the mean hazard curve. NB: this has changed in engine 3.17. In previous versions the inversion was made on the individual curves which meant some realizations could be discarded if the PoEs could not be reached.

• iml_disagg: the intensity measure level(s) to be disaggregated can be directly defined by specifying iml_disagg. Note that a disaggregation computation requires either poes_disagg or iml_disagg to be defined, but both cannot be defined at the same time.

• mag_bin_width: mandatory; specifies the width of every magnitude histogram bin of the disaggregation matrix computed

• distance_bin_width: specifies the width of every distance histogram bin of the disaggregation matrix computed (km)

• coordinate_bin_width: specifies the width of every longitude-latitude histogram bin of the disaggregation matrix computed (decimal degrees)

• num_epsilon_bins: mandatory; specifies the number of Epsilon histogram bins of the disaggregation matrix. The width of the Epsilon bins depends on the truncation_level defined in the “Calculation configuration” section (page )

• disagg_outputs: optional; specifies the type(s) of disaggregation to be computed. The options are: Mag, Dist, Lon_Lat, Lon_Lat_TRT, Mag_Dist, Mag_Dist_Eps, Mag_Lon_Lat, TRT. If none are specified, then all are computed. More details of the disaggregation output are given in the “Outputs from Hazard Disaggregation” section)

• disagg_by_src: optional; if specified and set to true, disaggregation by source is computed, if possible.

• num_rlzs_disagg: optional; specifies the number of realizations to be used, selecting those that yield intensity measure levels closest to the mean. Starting from engine 3.17 the default is 0, which means considering all realizations.

Alternatively to num_rlzs_disagg, the user can specify the index or indices of the realizations to disaggregate as a list of comma-separated integers. For example:

7[disaggregation]
8rlz_index = 22,23


If num_rlzs_disagg is specified, the user cannot specify rlz_index, and vice versa. If num_rlzs_disagg or rlz_index are specified, the mean disaggregation is automatically computed from the selected realizations.

As mentioned above, the user also has the option to perform disaggregation by directly specifying the intensity measure level to be disaggregated, rather than specifying the probability of exceedance. An example is shown below:

7[disaggregation]
8iml_disagg = {'PGA': 0.1}


If iml_disagg is specified, the user should not include intensity_measure_types_and_levels in the “Calculation configuration” section since it is explicitly given here.

The OQ Engine supports the calculation of two typologies of disaggregation result involving $$\epsilon$$. The standard approach used by the OQ Engine is described in the OQ Engine Underlying Hazard Science Book . The reader interested in learning more about the $$\epsilon^*$$ can refer to the PEER report Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis Code Verification, PEER Report 2018-03 .

To obtain disaggregation results in terms of $$\epsilon$$* the additional line below must be added to the disaggregation section of the configuration file:

7[disaggregation]
8epsilon_star = True


#### 2.2.4.3. Event based PSHA#

In the following we describe the sections of the configuration file that are required to complete event based PSHA calculations

Calculation type and model info

This part is almost identical to the corresponding one described in Section  Classical PSHA.

Note the setting of the calculation_mode parameter which now corresponds to event_based.

1[general]
2description = A demo OpenQuake-engine .ini file for event based PSHA
3calculation_mode = event_based
4random_seed = 1024


Event based parameters

This section is used to specify the number of stochastic event sets to be generated for each logic tree realisation (each stochastic event set represents a potential realisation of seismicity during the investigation_time specified in the calculation_configuration part). Additionally, in this section the user can specify the spatial correlation model to be used for the generation of ground motion fields.

ses_per_logic_tree_path = 5
ground_motion_correlation_model = JB2009
ground_motion_correlation_params = {"vs30_clustering": True}


The acceptable flags for the parameter vs30_clustering are False and True, with a capital F and T respectively. 0 and 1 are also acceptable flags.

Output

This part substitutes the Output part described in the configuration file example described in the Section Classical PSHA.

[output]
export_dir = /tmp/xxx
ground_motion_fields = true
# post-process ground motion fields into hazard curves,
# given the specified intensity_measure_types_and_levels
hazard_curves_from_gmfs = true
mean = true
quantiles = 0.15, 0.50, 0.85
poes = 0.1, 0.2


Starting from OpenQuake engine22, it is now possible to export information about the ruptures directly in CSV format.

The option hazard_curves_from_gmfs instructs the user to use the event- based ground motion values to provide hazard curves indicating the probabilities of exceeding the intensity measure levels set previously in the intensity_measure_types_and_levels option.

#### 2.2.4.4. Scenario hazard#

In order to run this calculator, the parameter calculation_mode needs to be set to scenario. The user can run scenario calculations with and without conditioning the ground shaking to station and macroseismic data. The ground motion fields will be computed at each of the sites and for each of the intensity measure types specified in the job configuration file.

The basic job configuration file required for running a scenario hazard calculation is shown in the listing below.

[general]
description = Scenario Hazard Config File
calculation_mode = scenario

[sites]
sites_csv = sites.csv

[station_data]
station_data_file = stationlist.csv

[rupture]
rupture_model_file = rupture_model.xml
rupture_mesh_spacing = 2.0

[site_params]
site_model_file = site_model.csv site_model_stations.csv

[correlation]
ground_motion_correlation_model = JB2009
ground_motion_correlation_params = {"vs30_clustering": True}

[hazard_calculation]
intensity_measure_types = PGA, SA(0.3), SA(1.0)
random_seed = 42
truncation_level = 3.0
maximum_distance = 200.0
gsim = BooreAtkinson2008
number_of_ground_motion_fields = 1000


Most of the job configuration parameters required for running a scenario hazard calculation seen in the example in the listing above are the same as those described in the previous sections for the classical PSHA calculator (Section  Classical PSHA) and the event-based PSHA calculator (Section  Event based PSHA). The set of sites at which the ground motion fields will be produced can be specifed by using the sites or sites_csv parameters, or the region and region_grid_spacing parameters, similar to the classical PSHA and event-based PSHA calculators; other options include the definition of the sites through the site_model_file or the exposure model (see Section Exposure Models).

The parameters unique to the scenario calculator are described below:

• number_of_ground_motion_fields: this parameter is used to specify the number of Monte Carlo simulations of the ground motion values at the specified sites.

• station_data_file: this is an optional parameter used to specify the observed intensity values for one or more intensity measure types at a set of ground motion recording stations. See example file in Table 2.1.

• gsim: this parameter indicates the name of a ground motion prediction equation. Note: There are other option to indicate the ground motion models, see the sections below.

Note that each of the GSIMs specified for a conditioned GMF calculation must provide the within-event and between-event standard deviations separately. If a GSIM of interest provides only the total standard deviation, a (non-ideal) workaround might be for the user to specify the ratio between the within-event and between-event standard deviations, which the engine will use to add the between and within standard deviations to the GSIM.

Station data csv file This csv file contains the observed intensity values available from ground motion recordings and macroseismic intensity data. One or multiple intensity measure types can be indicated for all observations. An example of such a file is shown below in Table 2.1.

When conditiong the ground motion fields to station data, all of the site parameters required by the GMMs will also need to be provided for the set of sites in the station_data_file. This is specified in the configuration file by including in the site_model_file section a site_model_stations.csv file.

Table 2.1 Example of station data csv file#

STATION_ID

STATION_NAME

LONGITUDE

LATITUDE

STATION_TYPE

PGA_VALUE

PGA_LN_SIGMA

SA(0.3)_VALUE

SA(0.3)_LN_SIGMA

SA(1.0)_VALUE

SA(1.0)_LN_SIGMA

VIGA VNTA COYC ⋮ UTM_14Q_041_186 UTM_14Q_041_185 UTM_14Q_040_186 ⋮

LAS VIGAS LA VENTA COYUCA ⋮ NA NA NA ⋮

-99.23326 -99.81885 -100.08996 ⋮ -99.7982 -99.79761 -99.89182 ⋮

16.7587 16.91426 16.99778 ⋮ 16.86687 16.77656 16.86655 ⋮

seismic seismic seismic ⋮ macroseismic macroseismic macroseismic ⋮

0.355 0.2061 0.1676 ⋮ 0.6512 0.5797 0.477 ⋮

0 0 0 ⋮ 0.8059 0.8059 0.8059 ⋮

0.5262 0.3415 0.2643 ⋮ 0.9535 0.8766 0.722 ⋮

0 0 0 ⋮ 1.0131 1.0131 1.0131 ⋮

0.1012 0.1051 0.0872 ⋮ 0.4794 0.4577 0.3223 ⋮

0 0 0 ⋮ 1.0822 1.0822 1.0822 ⋮

The following parameters are mandatory:

• STATION_ID: string; subject to the same validity checks as the id fields in other input files.

• LONGITUDE, LATITUDE: floats; valid longitude and latitude values.

• STATION_TYPE: string; currently the only two valid options are ‘seismic’ and ‘macroseismic’.

• <IMT>_VALUE, <IMT>_LN_SIGMA, <IMT>_STDDEV: floats; for each IMT observed at the recording stations, two values should be provided:

• for IMTs that are assumed to be lognormally distributed (eg. PGV, PGA, SA), these would be the median and lognormal standard deviation using the column headers <IMT>_VALUE, <IMT>_LN_SIGMA respectively.

• for other IMTs (e.g., MMI), these would simply be the mean and standard deviation using the column headers <IMT>_VALUE, <IMT>_STDDEV respectively.

The following parameters are optional:

• STATION_NAME: string; free form and not subject to the same constraints as the STATION_ID field. The optional STATION_NAME field can contain information that aids in identifying a particular station.

• Other fields: could contain notes about the station, flags indicating outlier status for the values reported by the station, site information, etc., but these optional fields will not be read by the station_data_file parser.

Ground motion models The user can choose to specify one or multiple GSIMs (or GMPEs) for the scenario calculation using any of the options below. A list of available GSIMs can be obtained using oq info gsims in the terminal, and these are also documented at http://docs.openquake.org/oq-engine/stable/openquake.hazardlib.gsim.html.

• A single ground motion model, e.g., gsim = BooreAtkinson2008.

• A GSIM logic tree (see Section The Ground Motion Logic Tree). In this case multiple ground motion models can be specified in a GMPE logic tree file using the parameter gsim_logic_tree_file. In this case, the OpenQuake engine generates ground motion fields for all GMPEs specified in the logic tree file. The Branch weights in the logic tree file are ignored in a scenario analysis and only the individual Branch results are computed. Mean or quantile ground motion fields will not be generated.

• A weighted average GSIM: starting from OpenQuake engine v3.8 it is possible to indicate an AvgGMPE that computes the geometric mean of the underlying GMPEs, similarly to AvgSA. In the configuration file, a weighted average GSIM can be specified as gsim_logic_tree_file = gsim_weighted_avg.xml, where the file gsim_weighted_avg.xml can be constructed using the modifiable GMPE structure for AvgGMPE as shown in the example below:

 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
3      xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.4">
4<logicTree logicTreeID='lt1'>
5   <logicTreeBranchingLevel branchingLevelID="bl1">
6      <logicTreeBranchSet
7      branchSetID="bs1"
8      uncertaintyType="gmpeModel"
9      applyToTectonicRegionType="Active Shallow Crust">
10      <logicTreeBranch branchID="br1">
11         <uncertaintyModel>
12            [AvgGMPE]
13            b1.AbrahamsonEtAl2014.weight=0.22
14            b2.BooreEtAl2014.weight=0.22
15            b3.CampbellBozorgnia2014.weight=0.22
16            b4.ChiouYoungs2014.weight=0.22
17            b5.Idriss2014.weight=0.12
18         </uncertaintyModel>
19         <uncertaintyWeight>
20            1.0
21         </uncertaintyWeight>
22      </logicTreeBranch>
23      </logicTreeBranchSet>
24   </logicTreeBranchingLevel>
25</logicTree>
26</nrml>


## 2.3. Hazard Calculations and Results#

In this Chapter we provide a desciption of the main commands available for running hazard with the OpenQuake engine and the file formats used to represent the results of the analyses.

A general introduction on the use of the OpenQuake engine is provided in OpenQuake-engine Background. The reader is invited to consult this part before diving into the following sections.

### 2.3.1. Running OpenQuake-engine for hazard calculations#

The execution of a hazard analysis using the OpenQuake-engine is straightforward. Below we provide an example of the simplest command that can be used to launch a hazard calculation. It consists in the invocation of oq engine together with the --run option, and the name of a configuration file (in the example below it corresponds to job.ini):

user@ubuntu:$oq engine --run job.ini  The amount of information prompted during the execution of the analysis can be controlled through the --log-level flag as shown in the example below: user@ubuntu:$ oq engine --run job.ini --log-level debug


In this example we ask the engine to provide an extensive amount of information (usually not justified for a standard analysis). Alternative options are: debug, info, warn, error, critical.

### 2.3.2. Exporting results from a hazard calculation#

There are two alternative ways to get results from the OpenQuake-engine: directly through the calculation or by exporting them from the internal OpenQuake engine database once a calculation is completed.

The first option is defined at the OpenQuake-engine invocation through the flag –exports xml, as shown in the example below:

user@ubuntu:~$oq engine --run job.ini --exports xml  This will export the results to the results directory specified in the job.ini file. The second option allows the user to export the computed results or just a subset of them whenever they want. In order to obtain the list of results of the hazard calculations stored in the OpenQuake engine database the user can utilize the --lhc command (‘list hazard calculations’) to list the hazard calculations: user@ubuntu:~$ oq engine --lhc


The execution of this command will produce a list similar to the one provided below (the numbers in red are the calculations IDs):

user@ubuntu:~$oq engine --lhc job_id | status | start_time | description 1 | failed | 2013-03-01 09:49:34 | Classical PSHA 2 | successful | 2013-03-01 09:49:56 | Classical PSHA 3 | failed | 2013-03-01 10:24:04 | Classical PSHA 4 | failed | 2013-03-01 10:28:16 | Classical PSHA 5 | failed | 2013-03-01 10:30:04 | Classical PSHA 6 | successful | 2013-03-01 10:31:53 | Classical PSHA 7 | failed | 2013-03-09 08:15:14 | Classical PSHA 8 | successful | 2013-03-09 08:18:04 | Classical PSHA  Subsequently the user can get the list of result stored for a specific hazard analysis by using the --list-outputs, or --lo, command, as in the example below (note that the number in blue emphasizes the result ID): user@ubuntu:~$ oq engine --lo <calc_id>
id | name
3 | hcurves


and finally extract an xml file for a specific hazard result:

user@ubuntu:~$oq engine --export-outputs <result_id> <output_folder>  ### 2.3.3. Description of hazard outputs# The results generated by the OpenQuake-engine are fundamentally of two distinct typologies differentiated by the presence (or absence) of epistemic uncertainty in the PSHA input model. When epistemic uncertainty is incorporated into the calculation, the OpenQuake-engine calculators (e.g. Classical PSHA, Event Based PSHA, Disaggregation, UHS) produce a set of results (i.e. hazard curves, ground motion fields, disaggregation outputs, UHS, for each logic-tree realisation) which reflects epistemic uncertainties introduced in the PSHA input model. For each logic tree sample, results are computed and stored. Calculation of results statistics (mean, standard deviation, quantiles) are supported by all the calculators. By default, OpenQuake will export only the statistical results, i.e. mean curves and quantiles. If the user requires the complete results for all realizations, there is a flag to specify, please see the FAQ gem/oq-engine. Beware that if the logic tree contains a large number of end branches the process of exporting the results from each end Branch can add a significant amount of time - possibly longer than the computation time - and result in a large volume of disk spaced being used. In this case it is best to postprocess the data programmatically. Please contact us and we will be happy to give directions on how to do that in Python. NB: in the literature there are different algorithms for the computation of the quantiles. The OpenQuake engine uses an algorithm based on interpolation which is implemented here: gem/oq-engine In particular, the median is computed as the q=0.5 quantile. #### 2.3.3.1. Outputs from Classical PSHA# By default, the classical PSHA calculator computes and stores hazard curves for each logic tree sample considered. When the PSHA input model doesn’t contain epistemic uncertainties the results is a set of hazard curves (one for each investigated site). The command below illustrates how is possible to retrieve the group of hazard curves obtained for a calculation with a given identifier <calc_id> (see Section Exporting results from a hazard calculation for an explanation about how to obtain the list of calculations performed with their corresponding ID): user@ubuntu:~$ oq engine --lo <calc_id>
id | name
*3 | Hazard Curves
4 | Realizations


To export from the database the outputs (in this case hazard curves) contained in one of the output identifies, one can do so with the following command:

user@ubuntu:~$oq engine --export-output <output_id> <output_directory>  Alternatively, if the user wishes to export all of the outputs associated with a particular calculation then they can use the --export-outputs with the corresponding calculation key: user@ubuntu:~$ oq engine --export-outputs <calc_id> <output_directory>


The exports will produce one or more nrml files containing the seismic hazard curves, as represented below in the listing <lst:output_hazard_curves_xml> below.

 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
3      xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5">
4  <hazardCurves sourceModelTreePath="b1|b212"
5                gsimTreePath="b2" IMT="PGA"
6                investigationTime="50.0">
7    <IMLs>0.005 0.007 0.0098 ... 1.09 1.52 2.13</IMLs>
8    <hazardCurve>
9      <gml:Point>
10        <gml:pos>10.0 45.0</gml:pos>
11      </gml:Point>
12      <poEs>1.0 1.0 1.0 ... 0.000688359310522 0.0 0.0</poEs>
13    </hazardCurve>
14    ...
15    <hazardCurve>
16      <gml:Point>
17        <gml:pos>lon lat</gml:pos>
18      </gml:Point>
19      <poEs>poe1 poe2 ... poeN</poEs>
20    </hazardCurve>
21  </hazardCurves>
22</nrml>


Notwithstanding the intuitiveness of this file, let’s have a brief overview of the information included. The overall content of this file is a list of hazard curves, one for each investigated site, computed using a PSHA input model representing one possible realisation obtained using the complete logic tree structure.

The attributes of the hazardCurves element (see text in red) specify the path of the logic tree used to create the seismic source model (sourceModelTreePath) and the ground motion model (gsimTreePath) plus the intensity measure type and the investigation time used to compute the probability of exceedance.

The IMLs element (in green in the example) contains the values of shaking used by the engine to compute the probability of exceedance in the investigation time. For each site this file contains a hazardCurve element which has the coordinates (longitude and latitude in decimal degrees) of the site and the values of the probability of exceedance for all the intensity measure levels specified in the IMLs element.

If the hazard calculation is configured to produce results including seismic hazard maps and uniform hazard spectra, then the list of outputs would display the following:

user@ubuntu:~$oq engine --lo <calc_id> id | name 2 | Full Report 3 | Hazard Curves 4 | Hazard Maps 5 | Realizations 6 | Uniform Hazard Spectra  The first listing below shows a sample of the nrml file used to describe a hazard map, and and the second listing below shows a sample of the nrml used to describe a uniform hazard spectrum.  1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> 2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml" 3 xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5"> 4 <hazardMap sourceModelTreePath="b1" gsimTreePath="b1" 5 IMT="PGA" investigationTime="50.0" poE="0.1"> 6 <node lon="119.596690957" lat="21.5497682591" iml="0.204569990197"/> 7 <node lon="119.596751048" lat="21.6397004197" iml="0.212391638188"/> 8 <node lon="119.596811453" lat="21.7296325803" iml="0.221407505615"/> 9 ... 10 </hazardMap> 11</nrml>   1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> 2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml" 3 xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5"> 4 <uniformHazardSpectra sourceModelTreePath="b1_b2_b4" 5 gsimTreePath="b1_b2" 6 investigationTime="50.0" poE="0.1"> 7 <periods>0.0 0.025 0.1 0.2</periods> 8 <uhs> 9 <gml:Point> 10 <gml:pos>0.0 0.0</gml:pos> 11 </gml:Point> 12 <IMLs>0.3 0.5 0.2 0.1</IMLs> 13 </uhs> 14 <uhs> 15 <gml:Point> 16 <gml:pos>0.0 1.0</gml:pos> 17 </gml:Point> 18 <IMLs>0.3 0.5 0.2 0.1</IMLs> 19 </uhs> 20 </uniformHazardSpectra> 21</nrml>  #### 2.3.3.2. Outputs from Hazard Disaggregation# The OpenQuake engine output of a disaggregation analysis corresponds to the combination of a hazard curve and a multidimensional matrix containing the results of the disaggregation. For a typical disaggregation calculation the list of outputs are the following: user@ubuntu:~$ oq engine --lo <calc_id>
id | name
**3** | Disaggregation Outputs
5 | Full Report
6 | Realizations


Running --export-output to export the disaggregation results will produce individual files for each site. In presence of a nontrivial logic tree the user can specify the realization on which to perform the disaggregation by setting the rlz_index parameter in the job.ini file. If not specified, the engine will compute the mean disaggregation across all realizations. NB: before version 3.17 the default algorithm used was different: only the realization closest to the mean hazard curve was selected and used perform the disaggregation. This was a choice forced by performance limitations that do not apply to recent versions of the disaggregation calculator.

#### 2.3.3.3. Outputs from Event Based PSHA#

The Event Based PSHA calculator computes and stores stochastic event sets and the corresponding ground motion fields. This calculator can also produce hazard curves and hazard maps, similar to the Classical PSHA calculator. The inset below shows an example of the list of results provided by the OpenQuake engine at the end of an event-based PSHA calculation:

user@ubuntu:~\$ oq engine --lo <calc_id>
id | name
10 | Ground Motion Fields
11 | Hazard Curves
12 | Hazard Maps
13 | Realizations
14 | Earthquake Ruptures
15 | Events
16 | Uniform Hazard Spectra


Exporting the outputs from the ruptures will produce a CSV file with the following colums:

1. rup_id: incremental number identifying the rupture

2. multiplicity: how many times the rupture occurs in the effective investigation time

3. mag: float specifying the magnitude of the rupture

4. centroid_lon: longitude of the centroid of the rupture

5. centroid_lat: latitude of the centroid of the rupture

6. centroid_depth: depth (in km) of the centroid of the rupture

7. trt: string specifying the tectonic region type

8. strike: strike angle of the rupture surface

9. dip: dip angle of the rupture surface

10. rake: rake angle of the rupture surface

The outputs from the Ground Motion Fields can be exported in the csv format. Exporting the outputs from the Ground Motion Fields in the csv format results in two csv files illustrated in the example files in Table 2.2 and Table 2.5. The sites csv file provides the association between the site ids in the Ground Motion Fields csv file with their latitude and longitude coordinates.

Table 2.2 Example of a ground motion fields csv output file for an event based hazard calculation#

rlz_id

site_id

event_id

gmv_PGA

gmv_SA(0.3)

gmv_SA(1.0)

0

0

48

0.0089

0.0686

0.0065

0

0

54

0.0219

0.0325

0.0164

0

6

75

0.0246

0.0244

0.0036

1

0

76

0.0189

0.0327

0.0094

1

0

77

0.0286

0.0683

0.0471

7

6

1754

0.3182

1.2973

0.6127

7

6

1755

0.2219

0.6200

0.5069

The Events output produces a csv file with fields event_id, rup_id and rlz_id. The event_id is a 32 bit integer that identifies uniquely the event; the rup_id is a 64 bit integer that identifies uniquely the rupture; the rlz_id is a 16 bit integer that identifies uniquely the realization. The association between the event_id and the rup_id is stored inside the Events output.

The Realizations output produces a csv file listing the source model and the combination of ground shaking intensity models for each path sampled from the logic tree. An example of such a file is shown below in Table 2.3.

Table 2.3 Example of a realizations file#

ordinal

branch_path

weight

0

b1$$\sim$$b11_b21

0.1125

1

b1$$\sim$$b11_b22

0.075

2

b1$$\sim$$b12_b21

0.0375

3

b1$$\sim$$b12_b22

0.025

4

b2$$\sim$$b11_b21

0.3375

5

b2$$\sim$$b11_b22

0.225

6

b2$$\sim$$b12_b21

0.1125

7

b2$$\sim$$b12_b22

0.075

#### 2.3.3.4. Outputs from Scenario Hazard Analysis#

By default, the scenario hazard calculator computes and stores Ground Motion Fields for each GMPE specified in the job configuration file. The Ground Motion Fields will be computed at each of the sites and for each of the intensity measure types specified in the job configuration file.

Exporting the outputs from the Ground Motion Fields in the csv format results in two csv files illustrated in the example files in Table 2.4 and Table 2.5. The sites csv file provides the association between the site ids in the Ground Motion Fields csv file with their latitude and longitude coordinates.

Table 2.4 Example of a ground motion fields csv output file for a scenario (Download example)#

rlzi

sid

eid

gmv_PGA

gmv_SA(0.3)

gmv_SA(1.0)

0

0

0

0.062

0.119

0.157

0

1

0

0.086

1.533

0.260

0

2

0

0.223

1.647

0.232

1

4

99

2.467

0.750

1.918

1

5

99

0.601

0.828

2.272

1

6

99

0.514

0.340

1.202

In this example, the gmfs have been computed using two different GMPEs (and without conditioning the ground shaking to observations), so the realization indices (’rlzi’) in the first column of the example gmfs file are either 0 or 1. The gmfs file lists the ground motion values for 100 simulations of the scenario, so the event indices (’eid’) in the third column go from 0–99. There are seven sites with indices 0–6 (’sid’) which are repeated in the second column for each of the 100 simulations of the event and for each of the two GMPEs. Finally, the subsequent columns list the ground motion values for each of the intensity measure types specified in the job configuration file.

Table 2.5 Example of a sites csv output file for a scenario (Download example)#

site_id

lon

lat

0

-122.57000

38.11300

1

-122.11400

38.11300

2

-122.00000

37.91000

3

-122.00000

38.00000

4

-122.00000

38.11300

5

-122.00000

38.22500

6

-121.88600

38.11300

For scenario hazard calculations that consider the conditioning of the ground shaking to siesmic station or macroseismic observations, the nominal event bias, one bias value for each IMT, and for every GSIM used in the calculation is displayed and stored in the calculation log. The calculation log can be obtained using oq engine --show-log CALC_ID in the terminal.

## 2.4. Demonstrative Examples#

A number of hazard calculation demos are provided with the OpenQuake engine installation,showing different examples of input and configuration files, for different use cases.

This is the list of demos which illustrate how to use the OpenQuake engine for various seismic hazard analysis:

• AreaSourceClassicalPSHA

• CharacteristicFaultSourceCase1ClassicalPSHA

• CharacteristicFaultSourceCase2ClassicalPSHA

• CharacteristicFaultSourceCase3ClassicalPSHA

• ComplexFaultSourceClassicalPSHA

• Disaggregation

• EventBasedPSHA

• LogicTreeCase1ClassicalPSHA

• LogicTreeCase2ClassicalPSHA

• LogicTreeCase3ClassicalPSHA

• PointSourceClassicalPSHA

• SimpleFaultSourceClassicalPSHA

### 2.4.1. Classical PSHA Demos#

A number of demos have been designed to show how to perform a classical PSHA calculation using the different available source typologies and how to define non-trivial logic trees. It should be noted that the input files that will be illustrated are valid not only for a classical PSHA calculation but also for event based and disaggregation analysis.

All the classical PSHA demos illustrating the different source typologies (all demos but the ones about Logic Tree definition) share the same GSIM logic tree file, which for clarity is provided in the listing below.

Since this logic tree consideres only one tectonic region (i.e. Active Shallow Crust) all the seismic sources will belong be considered active shallow crust sources.

 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
3      xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5">
4    <logicTree logicTreeID="lt1">
5            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="gmpeModel"
6                    branchSetID="bs1"
7                    applyToTectonicRegionType="Active Shallow Crust">
8
9                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b1">
10                    <uncertaintyModel>
11                    ChiouYoungs2008
12                    </uncertaintyModel>
13                    <uncertaintyWeight>1.0</uncertaintyWeight>
14                </logicTreeBranch>
15
16            </logicTreeBranchSet>
17    </logicTree>
18</nrml>


#### 2.4.1.1. Classical PSHA with different source typologies#

This section discusses the following examples:

• AreaSourceClassicalPSHA

• CharacteristicFaultSourceCase1ClassicalPSHA

• CharacteristicFaultSourceCase2ClassicalPSHA

• CharacteristicFaultSourceCase3ClassicalPSHA

• ComplexFaultSourceClassicalPSHA

• PointSourceClassicalPSHA

• SimpleFaultSourceClassicalPSHA

The configuration file in the listing is defined to compute hazard curves for several intensity measure types (PGV, PGA and Spectral acceleration at different periods), hazard maps and uniform hazard spectra for different probabilities of exceedance:

[general]
description = ...
calculation_mode = classical
random_seed = 23

[geometry]
region = ...
region_grid_spacing = 5.0

[logic_tree]
number_of_logic_tree_samples = 0

[erf]
rupture_mesh_spacing = 2
width_of_mfd_bin = 0.1
area_source_discretization = 5.0

[site_params]
reference_vs30_type = measured
reference_vs30_value = 600.0
reference_depth_to_2pt5km_per_sec = 5.0
reference_depth_to_1pt0km_per_sec = 100.0

[calculation]
source_model_logic_tree_file = source_model_logic_tree.xml
gsim_logic_tree_file = gmpe_logic_tree.xml
investigation_time = 50.0
intensity_measure_types_and_levels = {"PGV": [2, 4, 6 ,8, 10, ...],
"PGA": [0.005, 0.007, ...],
"SA(0.025)": [...],
"SA(0.05)": [...],
"SA(0.1)": [...],
"SA(0.2)": [...],
"SA(0.5)": [...],
"SA(1.0)": [...],
"SA(2.0)": [...]}
truncation_level = 3
maximum_distance = 200.0

[output]
mean = false
quantiles = 0.15, 0.50, 0.85
hazard_maps = true
uniform_hazard_spectra = true
poes = 0.10, 0.02


Hazard maps (for PGA, 10% in 50 years) for the different demos using various oq-engine source typologies are shown in the figures below:

Hazard maps (for PGA, 10% in 50 years) as obtained from characteristic fault sources with simple fault geometry (a), complex fault geometry (b), and collection of planar surfaces (c)

#### 2.4.1.2. Classical PSHA with non trivial logic trees#

Three demos are provided to illustrate how the logic tree formalism can be used to express epistemic uncertainties in seismic hazard analysis.

LogicTreeCase1ClassicalPSHA shows an example of logic tree defining two alternative source models, with sources belonging to two different tectonic region types, and with two alternative GMPEs for each tectonic region type. The source model logic tree is therefore defined as shown in the listing below.

 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
3      xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5">
4    <logicTree logicTreeID="lt1">
5
6            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="sourceModel"
7                                branchSetID="bs1">
8                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b1">
9                    <uncertaintyModel>
10                      source_model_1.xml
11                    </uncertaintyModel>
12                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.5</uncertaintyWeight>
13                </logicTreeBranch>
14                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b2">
15                    <uncertaintyModel>
16                       source_model_2.xml
17                    </uncertaintyModel>
18                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.5</uncertaintyWeight>
19                </logicTreeBranch>
20            </logicTreeBranchSet>
21
22    </logicTree>
23</nrml>


The two source models are defined in two separate files: source_model_1.xml and source_model_2.xml each one associated to a corresponding weight (0.5 for both).

The GSIM logic tree file contains the structure as shown in the listing below.

 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2
3<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
4      xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5">
5    <logicTree logicTreeID="lt1">
6
7            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="gmpeModel"
8               applyToTectonicRegionType="Active Shallow Crust"
9               branchSetID="bs1">
10                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b11">
11                   <uncertaintyModel>
12                      BooreAtkinson2008
13                   </uncertaintyModel>
14                   <uncertaintyWeight>0.5</uncertaintyWeight>
15                </logicTreeBranch>
16                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b12">
17                   <uncertaintyModel>
18                      ChiouYoungs2008
19                   </uncertaintyModel>
20                   <uncertaintyWeight>0.5</uncertaintyWeight>
21                </logicTreeBranch>
22            </logicTreeBranchSet>
23
24            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="gmpeModel"
25              applyToTectonicRegionType="Stable Continental Crust"
26              branchSetID="bs2">
27              <logicTreeBranch branchID="b21">
28                <uncertaintyModel>
29                   ToroEtAl2002</uncertaintyModel>
30                <uncertaintyWeight>0.5</uncertaintyWeight>
31                </logicTreeBranch>
32                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b22">
33                  <uncertaintyModel>
34                     Campbell2003</uncertaintyModel>
35                  <uncertaintyWeight>0.5</uncertaintyWeight>
36                </logicTreeBranch>
37            </logicTreeBranchSet>
38
39    </logicTree>
40</nrml>


The source model contains sources belonging to Active Shallow Crust and Stable Continental Crust, therefore the GSIM logic tree defines two branching levels, one for each considered tectonic region type. Moreover for each tectonic region a Branch set with two GMPEs is defined: Boore and Atkinson 2008 and Chiou and Youngs 2008 for Active Shallow Crust and Toro et al. 2003 and Campbell 2003 for Stable Continental Crust. By processing the above logic tree files using the logic tree path enumeration mode (enabled by setting in the configuration file number_of_logic_tree_samples = 0) hazard results are computed for 8 logic tree paths (2 source models x 2 GMPEs for Active x 2 GMPEs for Stable).

LogicTreeCase2ClassicalPSHA defines a single source model consisting of only two sources (area and simple fault) belonging to different tectonic region types (Active Shallow Crust and Stable Continental Region) and both characterized by a truncated Gutenberg-Richter distribution. The logic tree defines uncertainties for G-R a and b values (three possible pairs for each source), maximum magnitude (three values for each source) and uncertainties on the GMPEs for each tectonic region type (two GMPE per region type).

To accommodate such a structure the GSIM logic tree is defined as shown in the listing below.

 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
3      xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5">
4    <logicTree logicTreeID="lt1">
5
6            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="sourceModel"
7                                branchSetID="bs1">
8                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b11">
9                    <uncertaintyModel>
10                     source_model.xml
11                    </uncertaintyModel>
12                    <uncertaintyWeight>1.0</uncertaintyWeight>
13                </logicTreeBranch>
14            </logicTreeBranchSet>
15
16            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="abGRAbsolute"
17                                applyToSources="1"
18                                branchSetID="bs21">
19                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b21">
20                    <uncertaintyModel>4.6 1.1</uncertaintyModel>
21                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.333</uncertaintyWeight>
22                </logicTreeBranch>
23                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b22">
24                    <uncertaintyModel>4.5 1.0</uncertaintyModel>
25                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.333</uncertaintyWeight>
26                </logicTreeBranch>
27                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b23">
28                    <uncertaintyModel>4.4 0.9</uncertaintyModel>
29                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.334</uncertaintyWeight>
30                </logicTreeBranch>
31            </logicTreeBranchSet>
32
33            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="abGRAbsolute"
34                                applyToSources="2"
35                                branchSetID="bs31">
36                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b31">
37                    <uncertaintyModel>3.3 1.0</uncertaintyModel>
38                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.333</uncertaintyWeight>
39                </logicTreeBranch>
40                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b32">
41                    <uncertaintyModel>3.2 0.9</uncertaintyModel>
42                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.333</uncertaintyWeight>
43                </logicTreeBranch>
44                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b33">
45                    <uncertaintyModel>3.1 0.8</uncertaintyModel>
46                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.334</uncertaintyWeight>
47                </logicTreeBranch>
48            </logicTreeBranchSet>
49
50            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="maxMagGRAbsolute"
51                                applyToSources="1"
52                                branchSetID="bs41">
53                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b41">
54                    <uncertaintyModel>7.0</uncertaintyModel>
55                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.333</uncertaintyWeight>
56                </logicTreeBranch>
57                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b42">
58                    <uncertaintyModel>7.3</uncertaintyModel>
59                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.333</uncertaintyWeight>
60                </logicTreeBranch>
61                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b43">
62                    <uncertaintyModel>7.6</uncertaintyModel>
63                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.334</uncertaintyWeight>
64                </logicTreeBranch>
65            </logicTreeBranchSet>
66
67            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="maxMagGRAbsolute"
68                                applyToSources="2"
69                                branchSetID="bs51">
70                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b51">
71                    <uncertaintyModel>7.5</uncertaintyModel>
72                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.333</uncertaintyWeight>
73                </logicTreeBranch>
74                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b52">
75                    <uncertaintyModel>7.8</uncertaintyModel>
76                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.333</uncertaintyWeight>
77                </logicTreeBranch>
78                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b53">
79                    <uncertaintyModel>8.0</uncertaintyModel>
80                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.334</uncertaintyWeight>
81                </logicTreeBranch>
82            </logicTreeBranchSet>
83
84    </logicTree>
85</nrml>


The first branching level defines the source model. For each source, two branching levels are created, one defining uncertainties on G-R a and b values (defined by setting uncertaintyType="abGRAbsolute") and G-R maximum magnitude (uncertaintyType="maxMagGRAbsolute").

It is important to notice that each Branch set is applied to a specific source by defining the attribute applyToSources, followed by the source ID. The GSIM logic tree file is the same as used for LogicTreeCase1ClassicalPSHA. By setting in the configuration file number_of_logic_tree_samples = 0, hazard results are obtained for 324 paths (1 source model x 3 (a, b) pairs for source 1 x 3 (a, b) pairs for source 2 x 3 max magnitude values for source 1 x 3 max magnitude values for source 2 x 2 GMPEs for Active Shallow Crust X 2 GMPEs for Stable Continental Crust), see Fig. 2.18.

LogicTreeCase3ClassicalPSHA illustrates an example of logic tree defining relative uncertainties on G-R maximum magnitude and b value. A single source model is considered containing two sources belonging to different tectonic region types and both characterized by a G-R magnitude frequency distribution. The source model logic tree for this demo is as shown in the listing below.

 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<nrml xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
3      xmlns="http://openquake.org/xmlns/nrml/0.5">
4    <logicTree logicTreeID="lt1">
5
6            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="sourceModel"
7                                branchSetID="bs1">
8                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b11">
9                    <uncertaintyModel>
10                     source_model.xml
11                    </uncertaintyModel>
12                    <uncertaintyWeight>1.0</uncertaintyWeight>
13                </logicTreeBranch>
14            </logicTreeBranchSet>
15
16            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="bGRRelative"
17                                branchSetID="bs21">
18                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b21">
19                    <uncertaintyModel>+0.1</uncertaintyModel>
20                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.333</uncertaintyWeight>
21                </logicTreeBranch>
22                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b22">
23                    <uncertaintyModel>0.0</uncertaintyModel>
24                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.333</uncertaintyWeight>
25                </logicTreeBranch>
26                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b23">
27                    <uncertaintyModel>-0.1</uncertaintyModel>
28                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.334</uncertaintyWeight>
29                </logicTreeBranch>
30            </logicTreeBranchSet>
31
32            <logicTreeBranchSet uncertaintyType="maxMagGRRelative"
33                                branchSetID="bs31">
34                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b31">
35                    <uncertaintyModel>0.0</uncertaintyModel>
36                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.333</uncertaintyWeight>
37                </logicTreeBranch>
38                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b32">
39                    <uncertaintyModel>+0.5</uncertaintyModel>
40                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.333</uncertaintyWeight>
41                </logicTreeBranch>
42                <logicTreeBranch branchID="b33">
43                    <uncertaintyModel>+1.0</uncertaintyModel>
44                    <uncertaintyWeight>0.334</uncertaintyWeight>
45                </logicTreeBranch>
46            </logicTreeBranchSet>
47
48    </logicTree>
49</nrml>


After the first branching level defining the source model, two additional branching levels are defined, one defining relative uncertainties on b value (bGRRelative applied consistently to all sources in the source model) and the second uncertainties on maximum magnitude (maxMagGRRelative). Similar to the other cases, two GMPEs are considered for each tectonic region type and therefore the total number of logic tree path is 36 (1 source model x 3 b value increments x 3 maximum magnitude increments x 2 GMPE for Active x 2 GMPEs for Stable).

### 2.4.2. Hazard Disaggregation Demos#

An example of disaggregation calculation is given considering a source model consisting of two sources (area and simple fault) belonging to two different tectonic region types.

The calculation is defined with the following configuration file:

[general]
description = ...
calculation_mode = disaggregation
random_seed = 23

[geometry]
sites = 0.5 -0.5

[logic_tree]
number_of_logic_tree_samples = 0

[erf]
rupture_mesh_spacing = 2
width_of_mfd_bin = 0.1
area_source_discretization = 5.0

[site_params]
reference_vs30_type = measured
reference_vs30_value = 600.0
reference_depth_to_2pt5km_per_sec = 5.0
reference_depth_to_1pt0km_per_sec = 100.0

[calculation]
source_model_logic_tree_file = source_model_logic_tree.xml
gsim_logic_tree_file = gmpe_logic_tree.xml
investigation_time = 50.0
intensity_measure_types_and_levels = {"PGA": [...]}
truncation_level = 3
maximum_distance = 200.0

[disaggregation]
poes_disagg = 0.1
mag_bin_width = 1.0
distance_bin_width = 10.0
coordinate_bin_width = 0.2
num_epsilon_bins = 3

[output]
export_dir = ...


Disaggregation matrices are computed for a single site (located between the two sources) for a ground motion value corresponding to a probability value equal to 0.1 (poes_disagg = 0.1). Magnitude values are classified in one magnitude unit bins (mag_bin_width = 1.0), distances in bins of 10 km (distance_bin_width = 10.0), coordinates in bins of 0.2 degrees (coordinate_bin_width = 0.2). 3 epsilons bins are considered (num_epsilon_bins = 3).

### 2.4.3. Event Based PSHA Demos#

A demo showing an example of Event Based PSHA calculation is provided with the following configuration file:

[general]
description = Event Based PSHA using Area Source
calculation_mode = event_based
random_seed = 23

[geometry]
sites = 0.5 -0.5

[logic_tree]
number_of_logic_tree_samples = 0

[erf]
rupture_mesh_spacing = 2
width_of_mfd_bin = 0.1
area_source_discretization = 5.0

[site_params]
reference_vs30_type = measured
reference_vs30_value = 600.0
reference_depth_to_2pt5km_per_sec = 5.0
reference_depth_to_1pt0km_per_sec = 100.0

[calculation]
source_model_logic_tree_file = source_model_logic_tree.xml
gsim_logic_tree_file = gmpe_logic_tree.xml
investigation_time = 50.0
intensity_measure_types_and_levels = {"PGA": [...]}
truncation_level = 3
maximum_distance = 200.0

[event_based_params]
ses_per_logic_tree_path = 100
ground_motion_correlation_model =
ground_motion_correlation_params =

[output]
export_dir = ...
ground_motion_fields = true
hazard_curves_from_gmfs = true
mean = false
quantiles =
hazard_maps = true
poes = 0.1


The source model consist of one source (area). 100 stochastic event sets are generated (ses_per_logic_tree_path = 100) (an example can be seen in Fig. 2.19). Ground motion fields are computed (ground_motion_fields = true, Fig. 2.20 and Fig. 2.21) and also hazard curves from ground motion fields are extracted (hazard_curves_from_gmfs = true). The corresponding hazard maps for 0.1 probability are also calculated (hazard_maps = true)