Glossary of Terms
=================
Area Source
-----------
A source type usually adopted to model distributed seismicity. In an area source the seismicity occurrence rate is
assumed uniform over the source area; this produces an hazard pattern with aplateau of constant hazard inside the
polygon delimiting the area sourceand values of hazard that tend to decrease as we move away from the border of the
source
Asset
-----
An asset is an element with a certain value, which can include buildings or population. For example, an asset can include
an individual building at a given location, or a number of buildings that are grouped, co- located at a single location
and classified with the same *Taxonomy*
Branch
------
The simplest element in a logic tree; it belongs to a *Branch Set* where it represents one possible option among a finite
number of alternatives. A branch is associated with a weight value if the *Branch Set* represents the epistemic uncertainty
on a parameter or a model when the *Branch Set* is used to specify alternative models (e.g. district
*Magnitude-Frequency Distribution*)
Branch Set
----------
The structure describing the epistemic uncertainty on a specific parameter or model included in a logic tree structure.
It ensembles a number of *Branch*, each one representing a discrete alternative
Calculation
-----------
A unique set of input files for which we attempt to produce results. Input files include an INI-style config file
(containing various calculation parameters) and various XML files. The structure of these XML files is defined by our
XML specification: NRML. The quantity, type, and content of these XML files will vary depending on the calculation mode.
The terms calculation and job are often used synonymously, but it is important to understand the distinction.
Calculator
----------
A Python class which can implement various methods associated with each calculation phase. In order of execution, the
phases are:
- pre_execute
- execute (this is the only required method)
- post_execute
- post_process
- export
- clean_up
Each calculation mode has its own calculator class defined, although many common functionalities are shared between
calculators. This common functionality is abstracted into common base classes and plain functions.
Configuration File
------------------
The file (usually .ini) containing the information necessary to run a calculation in OpenQuake engine
Consequence Function
--------------------
the distribution of the consequence (or loss) ratio conditional on a set of discrete limit states, defined for a
particular *Taxonomy*
Consequence Model
-----------------
A set of *Consequence Function* used to model the consequence ratios of all the *Taxonomy* in the *Exposure Model*
Control Node
------------
The machine from which the user initiates a calculation. The control is responsible for running code which processes user
input, initializes a calculation, distributes work, and manages/monitors the calculation until completion.
By convention, the machine used as the control node does not process tasks. The control node is also typically the
machine which runs vital server processes, such as RabbitMQ, and PostgreSQL/PostGIS.
Characteristic Fault Source
---------------------------
A fault source typology where ruptures always cover the entire fault surface
Complex Fault Source
--------------------
A source typology usually adopted to model subduction interface faults
Deductible
----------
A parameter used in the calculation of insured losses thatestablishes the economic value that needs to be deducted from
the ground-up losses
Hazard Disaggregation
---------------------
A methodology to investigate the contributions to aspecific level of hazard in terms of fundamental variables commonly
usedto characterize seismic sources and ground motion models (e.g. magnitude, source-site distance, *Epsilon*)
Dip
---
The dip is the steepest angle of descent of the fault plane relative to a horizontal plane; it is measured in degrees
[0,90]
Disaggregation Matrix
---------------------
A multi-dimensional matrix used to systematically store thecontributions to a level of hazard to be disaggregated and
that is specified by the user. See also *Seismic Hazard Disaggregation*
Earthquake Rupture Forecast
---------------------------
A list of all possible ruptures generated by all thesources included in a seismic source model. Each element in the
listcontains: the rupture geometry and the rupture probability of occurrencein a given time span. See also the
definition available on the `OpenSHA website `_
Earthquake Rupture Forecast Calculator
--------------------------------------
Calculator producing a *Seismic Source Model* from a *Seismic Source Logic Tree*
Engine
------
The term "engine" refers to the OpenQuake engine, the piece of software which is responsible for reading inputs,
distributing calculations, and collecting outputs.
Epsilon
-------
normalized residual of the ground motion
Exposure Model
--------------
A set of *Asset* grouped according to their geographical location, *Taxonomy* and value
Fault Trace
-----------
A curve representing the intersection between the surface containing the fault surface (or its prolongation) and the
topographic surface
.. figure:: _images/single_rupture.png
Fig. x.x Single rupture
Fragility Function
------------------
the probability of exceeding a set of limit states, given an intensity measure level. These functions can be discrete or
continuous
Fragility Model
---------------
A set of *Vulnerability Function* used to model the fragility of all the *Asset* in the *Exposure Model*
Frequency-Magnitude Distribution
--------------------------------
A distribution describing the frequency of earthquakes with a specific magnitude. It can be continuous or discrete. One
frequency- magnitude distribution frequently adopted in PSHA is the double truncated Gutenberg-Richter distribution
Grid Source
-----------
A source typology usually adopted to model distributedseismicity. It is routinely produced by a seismicity smoothing
algorithm (one of the most famous algorithm is the one proposed by Frankel 1995)
Ground-Motion Field (GMF)
-------------------------
An object describing the geographic distribution around a rupture of a ground motion intensity measure
Ground-Motion Field Calculator
------------------------------
An OpenQuake engine calculator that given a rupture computes thegeographic distribution of a ground motion intensity
parameter. Currently OQ can generate ground motion fields using a *Ground-Motion Prediction Equation*
Ground-Motion Logic Tree
------------------------
A method used to systematically describe the epistemicuncertainties related to the ground motion models used in the
computation of hazard using a specific *PSHA Input Model*
Ground-Motion Model
-------------------
An object that given a rupture with specific properties computes the expected ground motion at the given site. In
simplest case aground motion model corresponds to a *Ground-Motion Prediction Equation*. Incase of complex PSHA input
models, the produced ground motion models contains a set of *Ground-Motion Prediction Equations*, one for each tectonic
region considered
Ground-Motion Parameter
-----------------------
A scalar or vector quantity describing a relevant propertyof the shaking such as intensity (e.g. PGA or Spectral
Acceleration)or duration, equivalent number of cycles. See for example Hancock 2005.
Ground-Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE)
----------------------------------------
An equation that - given some fundamental parameters characterizing the source, the propagation path and the site (in
thesimplest case magnitude, distance and *VS30* - computes the value GM of a (scalar) ground motion intensity parameter
Ground-Motion System
--------------------
An object containing a list of *Ground-Motion Logic Trees*
Initial Seismic Source Input Model
----------------------------------
It is the ensable of information needed to fully describethe seismic sources composing a seismic source input model. The
initial seismic source input model is included in the first branching level of a seismic source logic tree
Insured Losses
--------------
Fraction of the ground-up losses that can be covered by the insurance industry, according to a certain policy
Integrated Risk Modelling Toolkit
---------------------------------
A plugin for QGIS which includes tools to run the OpenQuake engine, to visualize hazard and risk results, to develop
composite indicatorsand integrate them with physical risk estimations, and to predict building recovery times following
an earthquake. This plugin was designed as a collaborative effort between the GEM Foundation and the Center for Disaster
Management and Risk Reduction Technology, and it has been developed by the GEM Foundation.
Investigation Time
------------------
The time interval considered to calculate hazard; usually it corresponds to 50 years
Job
---
The runtime “thing” which represents an attempt to complete a calculation. The job contains various pieces of information
which are relevant while a calculation is in progress, including:
- status (i.e., “Is it running?”, as well as the calculation phase)
- logging level
- the user who initiated/owns this job
- engine process IDs
If in the future calculation resumability is supported, there could be more than 1 job associated with a calculation.
Limit
-----
A parameter used in the calculation of insured losses that establishes the maximum economic amount that can be covered by
the insurance industry, according to a certain insurance policy
Logic Tree
----------
Data structure used to systematically describe uncertainties on parameters and models used in a PSHA study
Logic Tree Processor
--------------------
An OQ calculator that takes the PSHA Input Model and createsmany realisations of a *Seismic Source Model* and of a
*Ground-Motion Model*
Magnitude-Scaling Relationship
------------------------------
An empirical relationship linking the magnitude with a parameter describing the size of the corresponding rupture
(e.g. the area of the rupture or the rupture length)
Magnitude-Frequency Distribution
--------------------------------
A distribution describing the frequency of earthquakes with a specific magnitude. It can be continuous or discrete. One
frequency-magnitude distribution frequently adopted in *PSHA* is the double truncated Gutenberg-Richter distribution
Non-Parametric Source
---------------------
A source typology in which the earthquake rupture forecast isdescribed explicitly by a set of ruptures and the
corresponding probabilities of occurrence
Natural Hazards’ Risk Markup Language
-------------------------------------
A markup language similar to XML, which specifies a numberof standardised schemas to represent various input models used
for OpenQuake engine calculations and output files generated by the OpenQuake engine
OpenSHA
-------
OpenSHA is an open-source, advanced Java-based platformfor conducting Seismic Hazard Analysis - (see the
`OpenSHA website `)
OpenQuake Hazard Library
------------------------
The OpenQuake Hazard Library (``openquake.hazardlib``) is the Python library the OpenQuake engine team has developed to function as
the core scientific library behind the OpenQuake engine for Seismic Hazard.
OpenQuake Risk Library
----------------------
The OpenQuake Risk Library (``openquake.risklib``) is the Python library the OpenQuake engine team has developed to function as the
core scientific library behind the OpenQuake engine for Seismic Risk.
Point Source
------------
The elemental source typology used in the OpenQuake engine to model distributed seismicity
PSHA Input Model
----------------
An object containing the information necessary to describethe seismic source and the ground motion models - plus the related epistemic uncertainties
Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA)
--------------------------------------------
A methodology to compute seismic hazard by taking intoaccount the potential contributions coming from all the sources of
engineering importance for a specified site
Earthquake Rupture
------------------
A 3D surface - representing a portion or the entire fault surface - over which a slip event (i.e. an earthquake) occurs
Rupture Model
-------------
An object containing the information necessary to describe a *Rupture*, such as magnitude, hypocenter location, strike,
dip, rake, and seismogenic depths
Rupture Aspect Ratio
--------------------
The ratio between the lenght and the width of an earthquake rupture
Rake
----
The rake is the direction in which a hanging wall block movesduring a rupture, measured relative to fault strike on the
plane of the fault
Scenario Based SHA
------------------
An analyis of seismic hazard based on the selection of one or a few ruptures and the computation of the expected ground
motion at a set of sites using a *GMPE* accounting ground motion variability
Seismicity History
------------------
An object containing a set ruptures representative of thepossible seismicity generated by the sources in a *Seismic Source
Model* during the investigation time *t*
Seismicity Rate
---------------
Number of events per unit of time (if not betterspecified, the definition of a seismicity rate generally presumes a time
independent
Seismic Source Data
-------------------
An object containing the information necessary tocompletely describe a *PSHA* seismic source i.e. seismic source type,
position, geometry and seismicity occurrence model
Seismic Source Logic Tree
-------------------------
Logic tree structure defined to describe in structured and systematic way the epistemic uncertainties characterizing the
seismic source model. The first branching level in the logic tree by definition contains one or several alternative
*Initial Seismic Source Input Model*
Seismic Source Input Model
--------------------------
An object containing a list of *Seismic Source Data*. In the OpenQuake engine a seismic source model does not contain
epistemic uncertainty
Seismic Source
--------------
An object that can generate **SHOULD BE COMPLETED**
Seismic Source Model (SSM)
--------------------------
An object containing a list of *Seismic Source* objects
Seismic Source System
---------------------
An object containing a list of *Initial Seismic Source Input Model* and the *Seismic Source Logic Tree*
Simple Fault Source
-------------------
A source typology usually adopted to model shallow structures with an uncomplicated geometry
Stochastic Event Set
--------------------
An object containing one or many *Seismicity History*
Strike
------
The strike direction correspond to the angle between thenorth and the direction you take so that when you walk along the
*Fault Trace* the fault dips on your right
Tag
---
Scheme used to specify attributes for the *Asset*. Attributes for an Asset could include the state, county, zip-code,
city, occupancy, CRESTA ID, or other such markers that could be used in the post-processing stage of a risk calculation
to aggregate results for each tag.
Taxonomy
--------
Scheme used to classify the *Asset*. For buildings, a classification scheme has been proposed by the GEM Foundation which
considers anumber of attributes including lateral load resisting system and its material, height, year of construction.
The taxonomy is currently used to link the *Asset* in the *Exposure Model* to the relevant *Vulnerability Function* or
*Fragility Function*
Tectonic Region
---------------
A area on the topographic surface that can be considered homogeneous in terms of tectonic properties such as the
prevalent seismogenic properties and/or the seismic wave propagation properties
Temporal Occurrence Model
-------------------------
Usually a probabilistic model giving the probability of occurrence of an event in a specified *Investigation Time*
Vulnerability Function
----------------------
A function that describes the probability distribution ofloss ratio, conditioned on an intensity measure level. Currently only discrete vulnerability functions are supported
Vulnerability Model
-------------------
A set of *Vulnerability Function* used to model the physical vulnerability of all the *Asset* in the *Exposure Model*
VS30
----
Average shear wave velocity of the materials in the uppermost 30m of the soil column
Worker Process
--------------
A process which is dedicated to task execution.
Worker Machine
--------------
A machine dedicated to run worker processes.
The concepts of “worker machines” and “worker processes” are often referred to synonymously (as “workers”, for short).
Technically, there can be many worker processes running on a single worker machine. The number of worker processes per
machine is typically equal to the number of CPU cores available.