# Source code for openquake.hazardlib.gsim.climent_1994

```
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# vim: tabstop=4 shiftwidth=4 softtabstop=4
#
# Copyright (C) 2014-2020 GEM Foundation
#
# OpenQuake is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it
# under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published
# by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# OpenQuake is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
# GNU Affero General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
# along with OpenQuake. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
"""
Module exports :class:'ClimentEtAl1994'.
"""
import numpy as np
# standard acceleration of gravity in m/s**2
from scipy.constants import g
from openquake.hazardlib.gsim.base import GMPE, CoeffsTable
from openquake.hazardlib import const
from openquake.hazardlib.imt import PGA, SA
[docs]class ClimentEtAl1994(GMPE):
"""
Implements GMPE developed by Climent, A, W. Taylor, M. Ciudad Real,
W. Strauch, M. Villagran, A. Dahle, and H. Bungum. Published as a
NORSAR report: "Spectral strong motion attenuation in Central Ame-
rica", NORSAR Technical Report No. 2-17, 46 pp.
The original formulation predict PGA (m/s*s) and 5% damped PSV (m/s)
for the largest component of horizontal ground motion.
In this implementation:
Spectral acceleration (SA) values are obtained from PSV ones using
the following formula :
SA = [PSV * (2 * pi/ T)]/ratio(SA_larger/SA_geo_mean)
StdDev.TOTAL=StdDev.TOTAL/sd_ratio(SA_larger/SA_geo_mean)
The ratio() and sd_ratio() from Beyer and Bommer(2006)
"""
#: Supported tectonic region type is active shallow crust and/or
#: interface subduction the authors did not distinction between shallow
#: and sudbdution events (see topic 5.3 "Shallow crustal vs.subduction
#: events, pag. 32).
#: Any factor/parameter is used in the formulation to discriminate between
#: shallow or interface tectonic regime, here this GMPE is implemented
#: for active_shallow_crust only
DEFINED_FOR_TECTONIC_REGION_TYPE = const.TRT.ACTIVE_SHALLOW_CRUST
#: Supported intensity measure types are spectral acceleration,
#: and peak ground acceleration. See Table 2 in page 1865
DEFINED_FOR_INTENSITY_MEASURE_TYPES = set([
PGA,
SA
])
#: Supported intensity measure component is the largest component of
#: two horizontal components
#: :attr:`openquake.hazardlib.const.IMC.GREATER_OF_TWO_HORIZONTAL`,
#: see paragraph before table on Summary, page 1.
DEFINED_FOR_INTENSITY_MEASURE_COMPONENT = const.IMC.GREATER_OF_TWO_HORIZONTAL
#: Supported standard deviation types is total.
#: See equation 1 on the Summary and Table 4.1, page 22.
DEFINED_FOR_STANDARD_DEVIATION_TYPES = set([
const.StdDev.TOTAL
])
#: Required site parameters. The GMPE was developed for rock and soil
#: site conditions. The parameter S in eq. 1 (see Summary) define the
#: soil condition: S=0 for rock, S=1 for soil.
#: Here we use the Vs30=760 as limit between the two soil conditions
REQUIRES_SITES_PARAMETERS = {'vs30'}
#: Required rupture parameters are magnitude.
REQUIRES_RUPTURE_PARAMETERS = {'mag'}
#: Required distance measure is Rhypo, explained in page 1(eq. 1)
REQUIRES_DISTANCES = {'rhypo'}
[docs] def get_mean_and_stddevs(self, sites, rup, dists, imt, stddev_types):
"""
See :meth:`superclass method
<.base.GroundShakingIntensityModel.get_mean_and_stddevs>`
for spec of input and result values.
"""
# Extracting dictionary of coefficients specific to required
# intensity measure type.
C = self.COEFFS[imt]
mean = self._compute_mean(C, rup, dists, sites, imt)
stddevs = self._get_stddevs(C, stddev_types, sites.vs30.shape[0])
return mean, stddevs
def _compute_term_1_2(self, rup, C):
"""
Compute terms 1 and 2 in equation 1 page 1.
"""
return C['c1'] + C['c2'] * rup.mag
def _compute_term_3_4(self, dists, C):
"""
Compute term 3 and 4 in equation 1 page 1.
"""
cutoff = 6.056877878
rhypo = dists.rhypo.copy()
rhypo[rhypo <= cutoff] = cutoff
return C['c3'] * np.log(rhypo) + C['c4'] * rhypo
def _get_site_amplification(self, sites, imt, C):
"""
Compute the fith term of the equation (1), p. 1:
``c5 * S``
"""
S = self._get_site_type_dummy_variables(sites)
return (C['c5'] * S)
def _get_site_type_dummy_variables(self, sites):
"""
Get site type dummy variables, ``S`` (for rock and soil sites)
"""
S = np.zeros_like(sites.vs30)
# S=0 for rock sites, S=1 otherwise pag 1.
idxS = (sites.vs30 < 760.0)
S[idxS] = 1
return S
def _get_stddevs(self, C, stddev_types, num_sites):
"""
Return total standard deviation.
"""
stddevs = []
assert all(stddev_type in self.DEFINED_FOR_STANDARD_DEVIATION_TYPES
for stddev_type in stddev_types)
stddevs = [np.zeros(num_sites) + C['SigmaB'] / C['r_std']
for _ in stddev_types]
return stddevs
def _compute_mean(self, C, rup, dists, sites, imt):
"""
Compute mean value for PGA and pseudo-velocity response spectrum,
as given in equation 1. Converts also pseudo-velocity response
spectrum values to SA, using:
SA = (PSV * W)/ratio(SA_larger/SA_geo_mean)
W = (2 * pi / T)
T = period (sec)
"""
mean = (self._compute_term_1_2(rup, C) +
self._compute_term_3_4(dists, C) +
self._get_site_amplification(sites, imt, C))
# convert from m/s**2 to g for PGA and from m/s to g for PSV
# and divided this value for the ratio(SA_larger/SA_geo_mean)
if imt.name == "PGA":
mean = (np.exp(mean) / g) / C['r_SA']
else:
W = (2. * np.pi)/imt.period
mean = ((np.exp(mean) * W) / g) / C['r_SA']
return np.log(mean)
#: Equation coefficients, described in Table 4.1 on pp. 22
#: the original imt values are defined as frequencies values
#: the sigma_ls was excluded
COEFFS = CoeffsTable(sa_damping=5, table="""\
IMT c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 SigmaB r_SA r_std
pga -1.6870 0.5530 -0.5370 -0.00302 0.3270 0.750 1.1000 1.0200
0.025 -7.2140 0.5530 -0.5370 -0.00302 0.3270 0.750 1.1000 1.0200
0.050 -5.4870 0.4470 -0.5500 -0.00246 0.3090 0.780 1.1000 1.0200
0.100 -4.7260 0.4830 -0.5810 -0.00199 0.3810 0.800 1.2020 1.0200
0.200 -4.8760 0.6420 -0.6420 -0.00156 0.4700 0.820 1.2040 1.0200
0.500 -5.8620 0.9170 -0.7260 -0.00107 0.5660 0.820 1.2100 1.0200
1.000 -6.7440 1.0810 -0.7560 -0.00077 0.5880 0.820 1.2200 1.0200
2.000 -7.3480 1.1280 -0.7280 -0.00053 0.5360 0.790 1.2400 1.0200
4.000 -7.4410 1.0070 -0.6010 -0.00040 0.4960 0.730 1.2800 1.0200
""")
```