# Tips for running large risk calculations¶

Scenario risk calculations usually do not pose a performance problem, since they involve a single rupture and a limited geography for analysis. Some event-based risk calculations, however, may involve millions of ruptures and exposures spanning entire countries or even larger regions. This section offers some practical tips for running large event based risk calculations, especially ones involving large logic trees, and proposes techniques that might be used to make an intractable calculation tractable.

## Understanding the hazard¶

Event-based calculations are typically dominated by the hazard component (unless there are lots of assets aggregated on few hazard sites) and therefore the first thing to do is to estimate the size of the hazard, i.e. the number of GMFs that will be produced. Since we are talking about a large calculation, first of all we need reduce it to a size that is guaranteed to run quickly. The simplest way to do that is to reduce the parameters directly affecting the number of ruptures generated, i.e.

• investigation_time
• ses_per_logic_tree_path
• number_of_logic_tree_samples

For instance, if you have ses_per_logic_tree_path = 10,000 reduce it to 10, run the calculation and you will see in the log something like this:

[2018-12-16 09:09:57,689 #35263 INFO] Received
{'gmfdata': '752.18 MB', 'hcurves': '224 B', 'indices': '29.42 MB'}


The amount of GMFs generated for the reduced calculation is 752.18 MB; and since the calculation has been reduced by a factor of 1,000, the full computation is likely to generate around 750 GB of GMFs. Even if you have sufficient disk space to store this large quantity of GMFs, most likely you will run out of memory. Even if the hazard part of the calculation manages to run to completion, the risk part of the calculation is very likely to fail — managing 750 GB of GMFs is beyond the current capabilities of the engine. Thus, you will have to find ways to reduce the size of the computation.

A good start would be to carefully set the parameters minimum_magnitude and minimum_intensity:

• minimum_magnitude is a scalar or a dictionary keyed by tectonic region; the engine will discard ruptures with magnitudes below the given threshoulds
• minimum_intensity is a scalar or a dictionary keyed by the intensity measure type; the engine will discard GMFs below the given intensity threshoulds

Choosing reasonable cutoff thresholds with these parameters can significantly reduce the size of your computation when there are a large number of small magnitude ruptures or low intensity GMFs being generated, which may have a negligible impact on the damage or losses, and thus could be safely discarded.

## region_grid_spacing¶

In our experience, the most common error made by out users is to compute the hazard at the sites of the exposure. The issue is that it very possible to have exposures with millions of assets on millions of distinct hazard sites. Computing the GMFs for millions of sites is hard or even impossible (there is a limit of 4 billion rows on the size of the GMF table in the datastore). Even in the cases when computing the hazard is possible, then computing the risk starting from an extremely large amount of GMFs will likely be impossible, due to memory/runtime constraints.

The second most common error is to use an extremely fine grid for the site model. Remember that if you have a resolution of 250 meters, a square of 250 km x 250 km will contain one million sites, which is definitely too much. The engine when designed when the site models had resolutions around 5-10 km, i.e. of the same order of the hazard grid, while nowadays the vs30 fields have a much larger resolution.

Both problems can be solved in a simple way by specifying the region_grid_spacing parameter. Make it large enough that the resulting number of sites becomes reasonable and you are done. You will loose some precision, but that is preferable to not being able to run the calculation. You will need to run a sensitivity analysis with different values of region_grid_spacing parameter to make sure that you get consistent results, but that’s it.

Once a region_grid_spacing is specified, the engine computes the convex hull of the exposure sites and builds a grid of hazard sites, associating the site parameters from the closest site in the site model and discarding sites in region where there are no assets (i.e. more distant than region_grid_spacing * sqrt(2)). The precise logic is encoded in the function openquake.commonlib.readinput.get_sitecol_assetcol, if you want to know the nitty-gritty details.

Our recommendation is to use the command oq prepare_site_model to apply such logic before starting a calculation and thus producing a custom site model file tailored to your exposure (see the section prepare_site_model).

## Collapsing of branches¶

When one is not interested so much in the uncertainty around the loss estimates, but more interested simply in the mean estimates, all of the source model branches can be “collapsed” into one branch. Using the collapsed source model should yield the same mean hazard or loss estimates as using the full source model logic tree and then computing the weighted mean of the individual branch results.

Similarly, the GMPE logic tree for each tectonic region can also be “collapsed” into a single branch. Using a single collapsed GMPE for each TRT should also yield the same mean hazard estimates as using the full GMPE logic tree and then computing the weighted mean of the individual branch results. This has become possible through the introduction of AvgGMPE feature in version 3.9.

## Splitting the calculation into subregions¶

If one is interested in propagating the full uncertainty in the source models or ground motion models to the hazard or loss estimates, collapsing the logic trees into a single branch to reduce computational expense is not an option. But before going through the effort of trimming the logic trees, there is an interim step that must be explored, at least for large regions like the entire continental United States. This step is to geographically divide the large region into logical smaller subregions, such that the contribution to the hazard or losses in one subregion from the other subregions is negligibly small or even zero. The effective realizations in each of the subregions will then be much fewer than when trying to cover the entire large region in a single calculation.

## Trimming of the logic-trees or sampling of the branches¶

Trimming or sampling may be necessary if the following two conditions hold:

1. You are interested in propagating the full uncertainty to the hazard and loss estimates; only the mean or quantile results are not sufficient for your analysis requirements, AND
2. The region of interest cannot be logically divided further as described above; the logic-tree for your chosen region of interest still leads to a very large number of effective realizations.

Sampling is the easier of the two options now. You only need to ensure that you sample a sufficient number of branches to capture the underlying distribution of the hazard or loss results you are interested in. The drawback of random sampling is that you may still need to sample hundreds of branches to capture well the underlying distribution of the results.

Trimming can be much more efficient than sampling, because you pick a few branches such that the distribution of the hazard or loss results obtained from a full-enumeration of these branches is nearly the same as the distribution of the hazard or loss results obtained from a full-enumeration of the entire logic-tree.

## Disabling the computation of the epsilon matrix¶

The vulnerability functions using continuous distributions (lognormal/beta) to characterize the uncertainty in the loss ratio, specify the mean loss ratios and the corresponding coefficients of variation for a set of intensity levels. They are used to build the so called epsilon matrix within the engine, governing how loss ratios are sampled from the distribution for each asset.

There is clearly a performance/memory penalty associated with the propagation of uncertainty in the vulnerability to losses. The epsilon matrix has to be computed and its size is huge (for instance with 1 million events and 1 million assets the epsilon matrix require 8 TB of RAM) so in large calculation it is impossible to generate it. In the past the only solution was setting

ignore_covs = true

in the job.ini file. Then the engine would compute just the mean loss ratios by ignoring the uncertainty. Since engine 3.12 there is a better solution: setting

ignore_master_seed = true

in the job.ini file. Then the engine will compute the mean loss ratios but also store information about the uncertainty of the results in the asset loss table, in the column “variance”, by using the formulae

$\begin{split}variance &= \Sigma_i \sigma_i^2 \ for\ asset\_correl=0 \\ variance &= (\Sigma_i \sigma_i)^2 \ for\ asset\_correl=1\end{split}$

in terms of the variance of each asset for the event and intensity level in consideration, extracted from the asset loss and the coefficients of variation. People interested in the details should look at the implementation in https://github.com/gem/oq-engine/blob/master/openquake/risklib/scientific.py.

# The asset loss table¶

When performing an event based risk calculation the engine keeps in memory a table with the losses for each asset and each event, for each loss type. It is usually impossible to fully store such table, because it is extremely large; for instance, for 1 million assets, 1 million events, 2 loss types and 4 bytes per loss ~8 TB of disk space would be required. It is true that many events will produce zero losses because of the maximum_distance and minimum_intensity parameters, but still the asset loss table is prohibitively large and for many years could not be stored. In engine 3.8 we made a breakthrough: we decided to store a partial asset loss table, obtained by discarding small losses, by leveraging on the fact that loss curves for long enough return periods are dominated by extreme events, i.e. there is no point in saving all the small losses.

To that aim,the engine honors a parameter called minimum_asset_loss which determine how many losses are discarded when storing the asset loss table. The rule is simple: losses below minimum_asset_loss are discarded. By choosing the threshold properly in an ideal world

1. the vast majority of the losses would be discarded, thus making the asset loss table storable;
2. the loss curves would still be nearly identical to the ones without discarding any loss, except for small return periods.

It is the job of the user to verify if 1 and 2 are true in the real world. He can assess that by playing with the minimum_asset_loss in a small calculation, finding a good value for it, and then extending to the large calculation. Clearly it is a matter of compromise: by sacrificing precision it is possible to reduce enourmously the size of the stored asset loss table and to make an impossible calculation possible.

Starting from engine 3.11 the asset loss table is stored if the user specifies

aggregate_by = id

in the job.ini file. In large calculations it extremely easy to run out of memory or the make the calculation extremely slow, so we recommend not to store the asset loss table. The functionality is there for the sole purpose of debugging small calculations, for instance to see the effect of the minimum_asset_loss approximation at the asset level.

For large calculations usually one is interested in the aggregate loss table, which contains the losses per event and per aggregation tag (or multi-tag). For instance, the tag occupancy has the three values “Residential”, “Industrial” and “Commercial” and by setting

aggregate_by = occupancy

the engine will store a pandas DataFrame called risk_by_event with a field agg_id with 4 possible value: 0 for “Residential”, 1 for “Industrial”, 2 for “Commercial” and 3 for the full aggregation.

NB: if the parameter aggregate_by is not specified, the engine will still compute the aggregate loss table but then the agg_id field will have a single value 0 corresponding to the total portfolio losses.

## The Probable Maximum Loss (PML) and the loss curves¶

Given an effective investigation time and a return period, the engine is able to compute a PML for each aggregation tag. It does so by using the function openquake.risklib.scientific.losses_by_period which takes in input an array of cumulative losses associated to the aggregation tag, a list of or return periods, and the effective investigation time. If there is a single return period the function returns the PML; if there are multiple return periods it returns the loss curve. The two concepts are essentially the same thing, since a loss curve is just an array of PMLs, one for each return period. For instance

>>> from openquake.risklib.scientific import losses_by_period
>>> losses = [3, 2, 3.5, 4, 3, 23, 11, 2, 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 13, 0]
>>> [PML_500y] = losses_by_period(losses, , eff_time=1000)
>>> PML_500y
13.0


computes the Probably Maximum Loss at 500 years for the given losses with an effective investigation time of 1000 years. The algorithm works by ordering the losses (suppose there are E > 1 losses) generating E time periods eff_time/E, eff_time/(E-1), ... eff_time/1 and log-interpolating the loss at the return period. Of course this works only if the condition

eff_time/E < return_period < eff_time

is respected. In this example there are E=16 losses, so the return period must be in the range 62.5 .. 1000 years. If the return period is too small the PML will be zero

>>> losses_by_period(losses, , eff_time=1000)
array([0.])


while if the return period is outside the investigation range we will refuse the temptation to extrapolate and we will return NaN instead:

>>> losses_by_period(losses, , eff_time=1000)
array([nan])


The rules above are the reason while you will see zeros or NaNs in the loss curves generated by the engine sometimes, especially when there are too few events: the valid range will be small and some return periods may slip outside the range.

In order to compute aggregate loss curves you must set the aggregate_by parameter in the job.ini to one or more tags over which you wish to perform the aggregation. Your exposure must contain the specified tags with values for each asset. We have an example for Nepal in our event based risk demo. The exposure for this demo contains various tags and in particular a geographic tag called NAME1 with values “Mid-Western”, “Far-Western”, “West”, “East”, “Central”, and the job_eb.ini file defines

aggregate_by = NAME_1

When running the calculation you will see something like this:

 Calculation 1 finished correctly in 17 seconds
id | name
9 | Aggregate Event Losses
1 | Aggregate Loss Curves
2 | Aggregate Loss Curves Statistics
3 | Aggregate Losses
4 | Aggregate Losses Statistics
5 | Average Asset Losses Statistics
11 | Earthquake Ruptures
6 | Events
7 | Full Report
8 | Input Files
10 | Realizations
12 | Total Loss Curves
13 | Total Loss Curves Statistics
14 | Total Losses
15 | Total Losses Statistics


Exporting the Aggregate Loss Curves Statistics output will give you the mean and quantile loss curves in a format like the following one:

annual_frequency_of_exceedence,return_period,loss_type,loss_value,loss_ratio
5.00000E-01,2,nonstructural,0.00000E+00,0.00000E+00
5.00000E-01,2,structural,0.00000E+00,0.00000E+00
2.00000E-01,5,nonstructural,0.00000E+00,0.00000E+00
2.00000E-01,5,structural,0.00000E+00,0.00000E+00
1.00000E-01,10,nonstructural,0.00000E+00,0.00000E+00
1.00000E-01,10,structural,0.00000E+00,0.00000E+00
5.00000E-02,20,nonstructural,0.00000E+00,0.00000E+00
5.00000E-02,20,structural,0.00000E+00,0.00000E+00
2.00000E-02,50,nonstructural,0.00000E+00,0.00000E+00
2.00000E-02,50,structural,0.00000E+00,0.00000E+00
1.00000E-02,100,nonstructural,0.00000E+00,0.00000E+00
1.00000E-02,100,structural,0.00000E+00,0.00000E+00
5.00000E-03,200,nonstructural,1.35279E+05,1.26664E-06
5.00000E-03,200,structural,2.36901E+05,9.02027E-03
2.00000E-03,500,nonstructural,1.74918E+06,1.63779E-05
2.00000E-03,500,structural,2.99670E+06,1.14103E-01
1.00000E-03,1000,nonstructural,6.92401E+06,6.48308E-05
1.00000E-03,1000,structural,1.15148E+07,4.38439E-01


If you do not set the aggregate_by parameter you will still able to compute the total loss curve (for the entire portfolio of assets), and the total average losses.

## Aggregating by multiple tags¶

The engine also supports aggregation my multiple tags. For instance the second event based risk demo (the file job_eb.ini) has a line

aggregate_by = NAME_1, taxonomy

and it is able to aggregate both on geographic region (NAME_1) and on taxonomy. There are 25 possible combinations, that you can see with the command:

$oq show agg_keys | NAME_1_ | taxonomy_ | NAME_1 | taxonomy | +---------+-----------+-------------+----------------------------+ | 1 | 1 | Mid-Western | Wood | | 1 | 2 | Mid-Western | Adobe | | 1 | 3 | Mid-Western | Stone-Masonry | | 1 | 4 | Mid-Western | Unreinforced-Brick-Masonry | | 1 | 5 | Mid-Western | Concrete | | 2 | 1 | Far-Western | Wood | | 2 | 2 | Far-Western | Adobe | | 2 | 3 | Far-Western | Stone-Masonry | | 2 | 4 | Far-Western | Unreinforced-Brick-Masonry | | 2 | 5 | Far-Western | Concrete | | 3 | 1 | West | Wood | | 3 | 2 | West | Adobe | | 3 | 3 | West | Stone-Masonry | | 3 | 4 | West | Unreinforced-Brick-Masonry | | 3 | 5 | West | Concrete | | 4 | 1 | East | Wood | | 4 | 2 | East | Adobe | | 4 | 3 | East | Stone-Masonry | | 4 | 4 | East | Unreinforced-Brick-Masonry | | 4 | 5 | East | Concrete | | 5 | 1 | Central | Wood | | 5 | 2 | Central | Adobe | | 5 | 3 | Central | Stone-Masonry | | 5 | 4 | Central | Unreinforced-Brick-Masonry | | 5 | 5 | Central | Concrete |  The lines in this table are associated to the generalized aggregation ID, agg_id which is an index going from 0 (meaning aggregate assets with NAME_1=*Mid-Western* and taxonomy=*Wood*) to 24 (meaning aggregate assets with NAME_1=*Mid-Western* and taxonomy=*Wood*); moreover agg_id=25 means full aggregation. The agg_id field enters in risk_by_event and in outputs like the aggregate losses; for instance: $ oq show agg_losses-rlzs
| agg_id | rlz | loss_type     | value       |
+--------+-----+---------------+-------------+
| 0      | 0   | nonstructural | 2_327_008   |
| 0      | 0   | structural    | 937_852     |
+--------+-----+---------------+-------------+
| ...    + ... + ...           + ...         +
+--------+-----+---------------+-------------+
| 25     | 1   | nonstructural | 100_199_448 |
| 25     | 1   | structural    | 157_885_648 |


The exporter (oq export agg_losses-rlzs) converts back the agg_id to the proper combination of tags; agg_id=25, i.e. full aggregation, is replaced with the string *total*.

By knowing the number of events, the number of aggregation keys and the number of loss types, it is possible to give an upper limit to the size of risk_by_event. In the demo there are 1703 events, 26 aggregation keys and 2 loss types, so risk_by_event contains at most

1703 * 26 * 2 = 88,556 rows

This is an upper limit, since some combination can produce zero losses and are not stored, especially if the minimum_asset_loss feature is used. In the case of the demo actually only 20,877 rows are nonzero:

\$ oq show risk_by_event
event_id  agg_id  loss_id           loss      variance
...
[20877 rows x 5 columns]
`