Source code for openquake.hazardlib.source.point

# The Hazard Library
# Copyright (C) 2012-2022 GEM Foundation
#
# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as
# published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the
# License, or (at your option) any later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
# GNU Affero General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
# along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
"""
Module :mod:`openquake.hazardlib.source.point` defines :class:`PointSource`.
"""
import math
from unittest.mock import Mock
import numpy
from openquake.baselib.general import AccumDict, groupby_grid
from openquake.baselib.performance import Monitor
from openquake.hazardlib.scalerel import PointMSR
from openquake.hazardlib.geo import Point, geodetic
from openquake.hazardlib.geo.surface.planar import PlanarSurface
from openquake.hazardlib.geo.nodalplane import NodalPlane
from openquake.hazardlib.source.base import ParametricSeismicSource
from openquake.hazardlib.source.rupture import (
    ParametricProbabilisticRupture, PointRupture)
from openquake.hazardlib.geo.utils import get_bounding_box, angular_distance


def _get_rupture_dimensions(src, mag, rake, dip):
    """
    Calculate and return the rupture length and width
    for given magnitude ``mag`` and nodal plane.

    :param src:
        a PointSource, AreaSource or MultiPointSource
    :param mag:
        a magnitude
    :param rake:
        rake angle
    :param dip:
        dip angle
    :returns:
        Tuple of two items: rupture length in width in km.

    The rupture area is calculated using method
    :meth:`~openquake.hazardlib.scalerel.base.BaseMSR.get_median_area`
    of source's
    magnitude-scaling relationship. In any case the returned
    dimensions multiplication is equal to that value. Than
    the area is decomposed to length and width with respect
    to source's rupture aspect ratio.

    If calculated rupture width being inclined by nodal plane's
    dip angle would not fit in between upper and lower seismogenic
    depth, the rupture width is shrunken to a maximum possible
    and rupture length is extended to preserve the same area.
    """
    area = src.magnitude_scaling_relationship.get_median_area(mag, rake)
    rup_length = math.sqrt(area * src.rupture_aspect_ratio)
    rup_width = area / rup_length
    seismogenic_layer_width = (src.lower_seismogenic_depth
                               - src.upper_seismogenic_depth)
    max_width = seismogenic_layer_width / math.sin(math.radians(dip))
    if rup_width > max_width:
        rup_width = max_width
        rup_length = area / rup_width
    return rup_length, rup_width


[docs]def msr_name(src): """ :returns: the name of MSR class or "Undefined" if not applicable """ try: return src.magnitude_scaling_relationship.__class__.__name__ except AttributeError: # no MSR for nonparametric sources return 'Undefined'
[docs]def calc_average(pointsources): """ :returns: a dict with average strike, dip, rake, lon, lat, dep, upper_seismogenic_depth, lower_seismogenic_depth """ acc = dict(lon=[], lat=[], dep=[], strike=[], dip=[], rake=[], upper_seismogenic_depth=[], lower_seismogenic_depth=[], rupture_aspect_ratio=[]) rates = [] trt = pointsources[0].tectonic_region_type msr = msr_name(pointsources[0]) for src in pointsources: assert src.tectonic_region_type == trt assert msr_name(src) == msr rates.append(sum(r for m, r in src.get_annual_occurrence_rates())) ws, ds = zip(*src.nodal_plane_distribution.data) strike = numpy.average([np.strike for np in ds], weights=ws) dip = numpy.average([np.dip for np in ds], weights=ws) rake = numpy.average([np.rake for np in ds], weights=ws) ws, deps = zip(*src.hypocenter_distribution.data) dep = numpy.average(deps, weights=ws) acc['lon'].append(src.location.x) acc['lat'].append(src.location.y) acc['dep'].append(dep) acc['strike'].append(strike) acc['dip'].append(dip) acc['rake'].append(rake) acc['upper_seismogenic_depth'].append(src.upper_seismogenic_depth) acc['lower_seismogenic_depth'].append(src.lower_seismogenic_depth) acc['rupture_aspect_ratio'].append(src.rupture_aspect_ratio) dic = {key: numpy.average(acc[key], weights=rates) for key in acc} dic['lon'] = numpy.round(dic['lon'], 6) dic['lat'] = numpy.round(dic['lat'], 6) return dic
def _rupture_by_mag(src, np, hc, point_rup): # generate one rupture for each magnitude and one point rupture # every 5 magnitudes mag_rates = list(src.get_annual_occurrence_rates()) if point_rup: # fast for mag, rate in mag_rates[::5]: yield PointRupture( mag, src.tectonic_region_type, hc, 0, np.rake, rate, src.temporal_occurrence_model) else: # regular case for mag, rate in mag_rates: surface, nhc = src._get_rupture_surface(mag, np, hc) yield ParametricProbabilisticRupture( mag, np.rake, src.tectonic_region_type, nhc, surface, rate, src.temporal_occurrence_model)
[docs]class PointSource(ParametricSeismicSource): """ Point source typology represents seismicity on a single geographical location. :param upper_seismogenic_depth: Minimum depth an earthquake rupture can reach, in km. :param lower_seismogenic_depth: Maximum depth an earthquake rupture can reach, in km. :param location: :class:`~openquake.hazardlib.geo.point.Point` object representing the location of the seismic source. :param nodal_plane_distribution: :class:`~openquake.hazardlib.pmf.PMF` object with values that are instances of :class:`openquake.hazardlib.geo.nodalplane.NodalPlane`. Shows the distribution of probability for rupture to have the certain nodal plane. :param hypocenter_distribution: :class:`~openquake.hazardlib.pmf.PMF` with values being float numbers in km representing the depth of the hypocenter. Latitude and longitude of the hypocenter is always set to ones of ``location``. See also :class:`openquake.hazardlib.source.base.ParametricSeismicSource` for description of other parameters. :raises ValueError: If upper seismogenic depth is below lower seismogenic depth, if one or more of hypocenter depth values is shallower than upper seismogenic depth or deeper than lower seismogenic depth. """ code = b'P' MODIFICATIONS = set() def __init__(self, source_id, name, tectonic_region_type, mfd, rupture_mesh_spacing, magnitude_scaling_relationship, rupture_aspect_ratio, temporal_occurrence_model, # point-specific parameters upper_seismogenic_depth, lower_seismogenic_depth, location, nodal_plane_distribution, hypocenter_distribution): super().__init__( source_id, name, tectonic_region_type, mfd, rupture_mesh_spacing, magnitude_scaling_relationship, rupture_aspect_ratio, temporal_occurrence_model) if not lower_seismogenic_depth > upper_seismogenic_depth: raise ValueError('lower seismogenic depth must be below ' 'upper seismogenic depth') if not all(upper_seismogenic_depth <= depth <= lower_seismogenic_depth for (prob, depth) in hypocenter_distribution.data): raise ValueError('depths of all hypocenters must be in between ' 'lower and upper seismogenic depths') if not upper_seismogenic_depth > geodetic.EARTH_ELEVATION: raise ValueError( "Upper seismogenic depth must be greater than the " "maximum elevation on Earth's surface (-8.848 km)") self.location = location self.nodal_plane_distribution = nodal_plane_distribution self.hypocenter_distribution = hypocenter_distribution self.upper_seismogenic_depth = upper_seismogenic_depth self.lower_seismogenic_depth = lower_seismogenic_depth def _get_max_rupture_projection_radius(self, mag=None): """ Find a maximum radius of a circle on Earth surface enveloping a rupture produced by this source. :returns: Half of maximum rupture's diagonal surface projection. """ if mag is None: mag, _rate = self.get_annual_occurrence_rates()[-1] radius = [] for _, np in self.nodal_plane_distribution.data: rup_length, rup_width = _get_rupture_dimensions( self, mag, np.rake, np.dip) rup_width = rup_width * math.cos(math.radians(np.dip)) # the projection radius is half of the rupture diagonal radius.append(math.sqrt(rup_length ** 2 + rup_width ** 2) / 2.0) self.radius = max(radius) return self.radius
[docs] def get_radius(self, rup, dip=90.): """ :returns: half of maximum rupture's diagonal surface projection """ rup_length, rup_width = _get_rupture_dimensions( self, rup.mag, rup.rake, dip) rup_width = rup_width * math.cos(math.radians(dip)) return math.sqrt(rup_length ** 2 + rup_width ** 2) / 2.0
[docs] def iter_ruptures(self, **kwargs): """ Generate one rupture for each combination of magnitude, nodal plane and hypocenter depth. """ filtermag = kwargs.get('mag') point_rup = kwargs.get('point_rup') for mag, mag_occ_rate in self.get_annual_occurrence_rates(): if filtermag and mag != filtermag: continue # yield only ruptures of magnitude filtermag for np_prob, np in self.nodal_plane_distribution.data: for hc_prob, hc_depth in self.hypocenter_distribution.data: hc = Point(latitude=self.location.latitude, longitude=self.location.longitude, depth=hc_depth) occurrence_rate = mag_occ_rate * np_prob * hc_prob if point_rup: yield PointRupture( mag, self.tectonic_region_type, hc, 0, np.rake, occurrence_rate, self.temporal_occurrence_model) else: surface, nhc = self._get_rupture_surface(mag, np, hc) yield ParametricProbabilisticRupture( mag, np.rake, self.tectonic_region_type, nhc if kwargs.get('shift_hypo') else hc, surface, occurrence_rate, self.temporal_occurrence_model)
# PointSource
[docs] def iruptures(self, point_rup=False): """ Generate one rupture for each magnitude, called only if nphc > 1 """ avg = calc_average([self]) # over nodal planes and hypocenters np = Mock(strike=avg['strike'], dip=avg['dip'], rake=avg['rake']) hc = Point(avg['lon'], avg['lat'], avg['dep']) yield from _rupture_by_mag(self, np, hc, point_rup)
[docs] def few_ruptures(self): yield from self.iruptures(point_rup=True)
[docs] def count_nphc(self): """ :returns: the number of nodal planes times the number of hypocenters """ return len(self.nodal_plane_distribution.data) * len( self.hypocenter_distribution.data)
[docs] def count_ruptures(self): """ See :meth: `openquake.hazardlib.source.base.BaseSeismicSource.count_ruptures`. """ return len(self.get_annual_occurrence_rates()) * self.count_nphc()
def _get_rupture_surface(self, mag, nodal_plane, hypocenter): """ Create and return rupture surface object with given properties. :param mag: Magnitude value, used to calculate rupture dimensions, see :meth:`_get_rupture_dimensions`. :param nodal_plane: Instance of :class:`openquake.hazardlib.geo.nodalplane.NodalPlane` describing the rupture orientation. :param hypocenter: Point representing rupture's hypocenter. :returns: Instance of :class:`~openquake.hazardlib.geo.surface.planar.PlanarSurface`. """ eps = .001 # 1 meter buffer to survive numerical errors assert self.upper_seismogenic_depth < hypocenter.depth + eps, ( self.upper_seismogenic_depth, hypocenter.depth) assert self.lower_seismogenic_depth + eps > hypocenter.depth, ( self.lower_seismogenic_depth, hypocenter.depth) rdip = math.radians(nodal_plane.dip) # precalculated azimuth values for horizontal-only and vertical-only # moves from one point to another on the plane defined by strike # and dip: azimuth_right = nodal_plane.strike azimuth_down = (azimuth_right + 90) % 360 azimuth_left = (azimuth_down + 90) % 360 azimuth_up = (azimuth_left + 90) % 360 rup_length, rup_width = _get_rupture_dimensions( self, mag, nodal_plane.rake, nodal_plane.dip) # calculate the height of the rupture being projected # on the vertical plane: rup_proj_height = rup_width * math.sin(rdip) # and it's width being projected on the horizontal one: rup_proj_width = rup_width * math.cos(rdip) # half height of the vertical component of rupture width # is the vertical distance between the rupture geometrical # center and it's upper and lower borders: hheight = rup_proj_height / 2. # calculate how much shallower the upper border of the rupture # is than the upper seismogenic depth: vshift = self.upper_seismogenic_depth - hypocenter.depth + hheight # if it is shallower (vshift > 0) than we need to move the rupture # by that value vertically. if vshift < 0: # the top edge is below upper seismogenic depth. now we need # to check that we do not cross the lower border. vshift = self.lower_seismogenic_depth - hypocenter.depth - hheight if vshift > 0: # the bottom edge of the rupture is above the lower sesmogenic # depth. that means that we don't need to move the rupture # as it fits inside seismogenic layer. vshift = 0 # if vshift < 0 than we need to move the rupture up by that value. # now we need to find the position of rupture's geometrical center. # in any case the hypocenter point must lie on the surface, however # the rupture center might be off (below or above) along the dip. rupture_center = hypocenter if vshift != 0: # we need to move the rupture center to make the rupture fit # inside the seismogenic layer. hshift = abs(vshift / math.tan(rdip)) rupture_center = rupture_center.point_at( horizontal_distance=hshift, vertical_increment=vshift, azimuth=(azimuth_up if vshift < 0 else azimuth_down)) # from the rupture center we can now compute the coordinates of the # four coorners by moving along the diagonals of the plane. This seems # to be better then moving along the perimeter, because in this case # errors are accumulated that induce distorsions in the shape with # consequent raise of exceptions when creating PlanarSurface objects # theta is the angle between the diagonal of the surface projection # and the line passing through the rupture center and parallel to the # top and bottom edges. Theta is zero for vertical ruptures (because # rup_proj_width is zero) theta = math.degrees( math.atan((rup_proj_width / 2.) / (rup_length / 2.))) hor_dist = math.sqrt( (rup_length / 2.) ** 2 + (rup_proj_width / 2.) ** 2) left_top = rupture_center.point_at( horizontal_distance=hor_dist, vertical_increment=-rup_proj_height / 2., azimuth=(nodal_plane.strike + 180 + theta) % 360) right_top = rupture_center.point_at( horizontal_distance=hor_dist, vertical_increment=-rup_proj_height / 2., azimuth=(nodal_plane.strike - theta) % 360) left_bottom = rupture_center.point_at( horizontal_distance=hor_dist, vertical_increment=rup_proj_height / 2., azimuth=(nodal_plane.strike + 180 - theta) % 360) right_bottom = rupture_center.point_at( horizontal_distance=hor_dist, vertical_increment=rup_proj_height / 2., azimuth=(nodal_plane.strike + theta) % 360) surface = PlanarSurface( nodal_plane.strike, nodal_plane.dip, left_top, right_top, right_bottom, left_bottom) return surface, rupture_center @property def polygon(self): """ Polygon corresponding to the max_rupture_projection_radius """ radius = self._get_max_rupture_projection_radius() return self.location.to_polygon(radius)
[docs] def get_bounding_box(self, maxdist): """ Bounding box of the point, enlarged by the maximum distance """ radius = self._get_max_rupture_projection_radius() return get_bounding_box([self.location], maxdist + radius)
[docs] def wkt(self): """ :returns: the geometry as a WKT string """ loc = self.location return 'POINT(%s %s)' % (loc.x, loc.y)
[docs]class CollapsedPointSource(PointSource): """ Source typology representing a cluster of point sources around a specific location. The underlying sources must all have the same tectonic region type, magnitude_scaling_relationship and temporal_occurrence_model. """ code = b'p' MODIFICATIONS = set() def __init__(self, source_id, pointsources): self.source_id = source_id self.pointsources = pointsources self.tectonic_region_type = pointsources[0].tectonic_region_type self.magnitude_scaling_relationship = ( pointsources[0].magnitude_scaling_relationship) self.temporal_occurrence_model = ( pointsources[0].temporal_occurrence_model) vars(self).update(calc_average(pointsources)) self.location = Point(self.lon, self.lat, self.dep)
[docs] def get_annual_occurrence_rates(self): """ :returns: a list of pairs [(mag, mag_occur_rate), ...] """ acc = AccumDict(accum=0) for psource in self.pointsources: acc += dict(psource.get_annual_occurrence_rates()) return sorted(acc.items())
[docs] def count_nphc(self): """ :returns: the total number of nodal planes and hypocenters """ return sum(src.count_nphc() for src in self.pointsources)
[docs] def iter_ruptures(self, **kwargs): """ :returns: an iterator over the underlying ruptures """ for src in self.pointsources: yield from src.iter_ruptures(**kwargs)
# CollapsedPointSource
[docs] def iruptures(self, point_rup=False): """ :yields: the underlying ruptures with mean nodal plane and hypocenter """ yield from _rupture_by_mag(self, self, self.location, point_rup)
[docs] def few_ruptures(self): for i, src in enumerate(self.pointsources): if i % 10 == 0: yield from src.few_ruptures()
def _get_max_rupture_projection_radius(self, mag=None): """ Find a maximum radius of a circle on Earth surface enveloping a rupture produced by this source. :returns: Half of maximum rupture's diagonal surface projection. """ if mag is None: mag, _rate = self.get_annual_occurrence_rates()[-1] rup_length, rup_width = _get_rupture_dimensions( self, mag, self.rake, self.dip) rup_width = rup_width * math.cos(math.radians(self.dip)) # the projection radius is half of the rupture diagonal self.radius = math.sqrt(rup_length ** 2 + rup_width ** 2) / 2.0 return self.radius
[docs] def count_ruptures(self): """ :returns: the total number of underlying ruptures """ return sum(src.count_ruptures() for src in self.pointsources)
[docs]def grid_point_sources(sources, ps_grid_spacing, monitor=Monitor()): """ :param sources: a list of sources with the same grp_id (point sources and not) :param ps_grid_spacing: value of the point source grid spacing in km; if None, do nothing :returns: a dict grp_id -> list of non-point sources and collapsed point sources """ grp_id = sources[0].grp_id for src in sources[1:]: assert src.grp_id == grp_id, (src.grp_id, grp_id) if ps_grid_spacing is None: return {grp_id: sources} out = [src for src in sources if not hasattr(src, 'location')] ps = numpy.array([src for src in sources if hasattr(src, 'location')]) if len(ps) < 2: # nothing to collapse return {grp_id: out + list(ps)} coords = numpy.zeros((len(ps), 3)) for p, psource in enumerate(ps): coords[p, 0] = psource.location.x coords[p, 1] = psource.location.y coords[p, 2] = psource.location.z deltax = angular_distance(ps_grid_spacing, lat=coords[:, 1].mean()) deltay = angular_distance(ps_grid_spacing) grid = groupby_grid(coords[:, 0], coords[:, 1], deltax, deltay) task_no = getattr(monitor, 'task_no', 0) for i, idxs in enumerate(grid.values()): if len(idxs) > 1: cps = CollapsedPointSource('cps-%d-%d' % (task_no, i), ps[idxs]) cps.grp_id = ps[0].grp_id cps.trt_smr = ps[0].trt_smr out.append(cps) else: # there is a single source out.append(ps[idxs[0]]) return {grp_id: out}
# used in the tests
[docs]def make_rupture(trt, mag, msr=PointMSR(), aspect_ratio=1.0, seismo=(10, 30), nodal_plane_tup=(0, 90, 0), hc_tup=(0, 0, 20), occurrence_rate=1, tom=None): hc = Point(*hc_tup) np = NodalPlane(*nodal_plane_tup) ps = object.__new__(PointSource) ps.magnitude_scaling_relationship = msr ps.upper_seismogenic_depth = seismo[0] ps.lower_seismogenic_depth = seismo[1] ps.rupture_aspect_ratio = aspect_ratio surface, nhc = ps._get_rupture_surface(mag, np, hc) rup = ParametricProbabilisticRupture( mag, np.rake, trt, hc, surface, occurrence_rate, tom) return rup