Source code for openquake.hazardlib.gsim.gulerce_abrahamson_2011

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# vim: tabstop=4 shiftwidth=4 softtabstop=4
#
# Copyright (C) 2014-2022 GEM Foundation
#
# OpenQuake is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it
# under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published
# by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# OpenQuake is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
# GNU Affero General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
# along with OpenQuake. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

"""
Module exports :class:`GulerceAbrahamson2011`
"""

import copy
import numpy as np

from openquake.hazardlib import const, contexts
from openquake.hazardlib.gsim.base import CoeffsTable, GMPE, registry
from openquake.hazardlib.imt import PGA, PGV, SA

#: equation constants (that are IMT independent)
CONSTS = {
    # Coefficients in Table 2, page 1028
    'c1': 6.75,
    'c4': 10.,
    'a3': 0.0147,
    'a4': 0.0334,
    'a5': -0.034,
    'n': 1.18,
    'c': 1.88}


def _compute_base_term(C, ctx):
    """
    Compute and return base model term, that is the first term, f1, in
    Equation 6, page 1028. The calculation of this term is described in
    Equation 1, page 1027.
    """
    c1 = CONSTS['c1']
    R = np.sqrt(ctx.rrup ** 2 + CONSTS['c4'] ** 2)

    base_term = (C['a1'] +
                 C['a8'] * ((8.5 - ctx.mag) ** 2) +
                 (C['a2'] + CONSTS['a3'] * (ctx.mag - c1)) *
                 np.log(R))

    if ctx.mag <= c1:
        return base_term + CONSTS['a4'] * (ctx.mag - c1)
    else:
        return base_term + CONSTS['a5'] * (ctx.mag - c1)


def _compute_faulting_style_term(C, ctx):
    """
    Compute and return faulting style term, that is the sum of the second
    and third terms in Equation 6, page 1028.
    """
    # ranges of rake values for each faulting mechanism are specified in
    # section "Functional Form of the Model", page 1029
    frv = float(30 < ctx.rake < 150)
    fnm = float(-120 < ctx.rake < -60)
    return C['a6'] * frv + C['a7'] * fnm


def _compute_site_response_term(C, imt, ctx, pga1100):
    """
    Compute and return site response model term, that is the fourth term
    f5 in Equation 6, page 1028. Note the change in sign for the piecewise
    term from the adopted equation in AS08.
    """
    site_resp_term = np.zeros_like(ctx.vs30)

    vs30_star, _ = _compute_vs30_star_factor(imt, ctx.vs30)
    vlin, c, n = C['VLIN'], CONSTS['c'], CONSTS['n']
    a10, b = C['a10'], C['b']

    idx = vs30_star < vlin
    arg = vs30_star[idx] / vlin
    site_resp_term[idx] = (a10 * np.log(arg) +
                           b * np.log(pga1100[idx] + c) -
                           b * np.log(pga1100[idx] + c * (arg ** n)))

    idx = ~idx
    site_resp_term[idx] = (a10 - b * n) * np.log(vs30_star[idx] / vlin)

    return site_resp_term


def _get_stddevs(C, ctx):
    """
    Return standard deviations as described in Equations 7 to 9, page 1029
    """
    std_intra = _compute_intra_event_std(C, ctx.mag)
    std_inter = _compute_inter_event_std(C, ctx.mag)
    return [np.sqrt(std_intra ** 2 + std_inter ** 2), std_inter, std_intra]


def _compute_intra_event_std(C, mag):
    """
    Equation 7, page 1029.
    """
    if mag < 5:
        sigma_0 = C['s1']
    elif 5 <= mag <= 7:
        sigma_0 = C['s1'] + (C['s2'] - C['s1']) * (mag - 5) / 2
    else:
        sigma_0 = C['s2']

    return sigma_0


def _compute_inter_event_std(C, mag):
    """
    Equation 8, page 1029.
    """
    if mag < 5:
        tau_0 = C['s3']
    elif 5 <= mag <= 7:
        tau_0 = C['s3'] + (C['s4'] - C['s3']) * (mag - 5) / 2
    else:
        tau_0 = C['s4']

    return tau_0


def _compute_vs30_star_factor(imt, vs30):
    """
    Compute and return vs30 star factor, Equation 4, page 1028.
    """
    v1 = _compute_v1_factor(imt)
    vs30_star = vs30.copy()
    vs30_star[vs30_star >= v1] = v1

    return vs30_star, v1


def _compute_v1_factor(imt):
    """
    Compute and return v1 factor, Equation 5, page 1028.
    """
    if imt.string[:2] == "SA":
        t = imt.period
        if t <= 0.50:
            v1 = 1500.0
        elif 0.5 < t <= 1.0:
            v1 = np.exp(8.0 - 0.795 * np.log(t / 0.21))
        elif 1.0 < t < 2.0:
            v1 = np.exp(6.76 - 0.297 * np.log(t))
        else:
            v1 = 700.0
    elif imt.string == "PGA":
        v1 = 1500.0
    else:
        # this is for PGV
        v1 = 862.0

    return v1


[docs]class GulerceAbrahamson2011(GMPE): """ Implements the GMPE by Gulerce & Abrahamson (2011) for the vertical-to-horizontal (V/H) ratio model derived using ground motions from the PEER NGA-West1 Project. Developing of the vertical spectra is applicable only to nonlinear horizontal ground-motion models. This model follows the same functional form as in AS08 by Abrahamson & Silva (2008) with minor modifications to the underlying parameters. Reference: Gulerce, Z. & Abrahamson, N. (2011), "Site-Specific Design Spectra for Vertical Ground Motion", Earthquake Spectra, 27(4), 1023-1047. """ #: Supported tectonic region type is active shallow crust, as part of the #: NGA-West1 Database; re-defined here for clarity. DEFINED_FOR_TECTONIC_REGION_TYPE = const.TRT.ACTIVE_SHALLOW_CRUST #: Supported intensity measure types are peak ground acceleration, peak #: ground velocity, and spectral acceleration at T=0.01 to 10.0 s; see #: Table 3, page 1030 DEFINED_FOR_INTENSITY_MEASURE_TYPES = {PGA, PGV, SA} #: Supported intensity measure component is the #: :attr:`~openquake.hazardlib.const.IMC.VERTICAL_TO_HORIZONTAL_RATIO` DEFINED_FOR_INTENSITY_MEASURE_COMPONENT = ( const.IMC.VERTICAL_TO_HORIZONTAL_RATIO) #: Supported standard deviation types are inter-event, intra-event #: and total; see Equations 7 to 9, page 1029. DEFINED_FOR_STANDARD_DEVIATION_TYPES = { const.StdDev.TOTAL, const.StdDev.INTER_EVENT, const.StdDev.INTRA_EVENT} #: Required site parameter is Vs30 only. Unlike in AS08, the nonlinear #: site response and Z1.0 scaling is not available for the vertical #: component; see section for "Functional Form of the Model", Equation 3. REQUIRES_SITES_PARAMETERS = {'vs30'} #: Required rupture parameters are magnitude, rake; see section for #: "Functional Form of the Model", Equation 6. REQUIRES_RUPTURE_PARAMETERS = {'mag', 'rake'} #: Required distance measure is Rrup; see the section for "Functional #: Form of the Model", Equation 1. REQUIRES_DISTANCES = {'rrup'} #: Verification of mean value data was done by digitizing Figures 7 to 10 #: using https://apps.automeris.io/wpd/ . Only SA is covered. non_verified = True def __init__(self, gmpe_name, **kwargs): super().__init__(gmpe_name=gmpe_name, **kwargs) self.gmpe = registry[gmpe_name]() self.set_parameters() # Check if this GMPE has the necessary requirements if (self.gmpe.DEFINED_FOR_INTENSITY_MEASURE_COMPONENT == const.IMC.VERTICAL): msg = 'Horizontal component is not defined for {:s}' raise AttributeError(msg.format(str(self.gmpe))) if (PGA not in self.gmpe.DEFINED_FOR_INTENSITY_MEASURE_TYPES): msg = 'PGA intensity measure type is not defined for {:s}' raise AttributeError(msg.format(str(self.gmpe))) self.REQUIRES_SITES_PARAMETERS |= self.gmpe.REQUIRES_SITES_PARAMETERS self.REQUIRES_RUPTURE_PARAMETERS |= ( self.gmpe.REQUIRES_RUPTURE_PARAMETERS) self.REQUIRES_DISTANCES |= self.gmpe.REQUIRES_DISTANCES
[docs] def compute(self, ctx, imts, mean, sig, tau, phi): """ See :meth:`superclass method <.base.GroundShakingIntensityModel.compute>` for spec of input and result values. """ ctx_rock = copy.copy(ctx) ctx_rock.vs30 = np.full_like(ctx_rock.vs30, 1100.) mea = contexts.get_mean_stds(self.gmpe, ctx_rock, [PGA()])[0] pga1100 = np.exp(mea[0]) # from shape (M, N) -> N for m, imt in enumerate(imts): C = self.COEFFS[imt] mean[m] = (_compute_base_term(C, ctx) + _compute_faulting_style_term(C, ctx) + _compute_site_response_term(C, imt, ctx, pga1100)) sig[m], tau[m], phi[m] = _get_stddevs(C, ctx)
#: Coefficients obtained from Table 3, page 1030 #: Note the atypical periods 0.029 s and 0.260 s used. COEFFS = CoeffsTable(sa_damping=5, table="""\ IMT VLIN b a1 a2 a6 a7 a8 a10 s1 s2 s3 s4 pga 865.1 -1.186 0.140 -0.160 -0.105 0.000 0.003 -1.230 0.422 0.333 0.213 0.161 pgv 400.0 -1.955 -1.200 0.090 0.050 0.150 0.022 -1.847 0.373 0.369 0.234 0.170 0.010 865.1 -1.186 0.140 -0.160 -0.105 0.000 0.003 -1.230 0.450 0.330 0.230 0.150 0.020 865.1 -1.219 0.140 -0.160 -0.105 0.000 0.003 -1.268 0.450 0.330 0.230 0.150 0.029 898.6 -1.269 0.335 -0.185 -0.140 0.000 0.003 -1.366 0.450 0.330 0.230 0.150 0.040 994.5 -1.308 0.562 -0.238 -0.160 0.000 0.003 -1.457 0.450 0.341 0.230 0.150 0.050 1053.5 -1.346 0.720 -0.275 -0.136 0.000 -0.001 -1.533 0.450 0.351 0.230 0.150 0.075 1085.7 -1.471 0.552 -0.240 -0.019 0.000 -0.007 -1.706 0.450 0.370 0.230 0.150 0.100 1032.5 -1.624 0.214 -0.169 0.000 0.017 -0.010 -1.831 0.450 0.384 0.230 0.150 0.150 877.6 -1.931 -0.262 -0.069 0.000 0.040 -0.008 -2.114 0.450 0.403 0.230 0.150 0.200 748.2 -2.188 -0.600 0.002 0.000 0.057 -0.003 -2.362 0.450 0.416 0.230 0.150 0.260 639.0 -2.412 -0.769 0.023 0.000 0.072 0.001 -2.527 0.450 0.429 0.230 0.150 0.300 587.1 -2.518 -0.861 0.034 0.000 0.080 0.006 -2.598 0.450 0.436 0.230 0.150 0.400 503.0 -2.657 -1.045 0.057 0.000 0.097 0.015 -2.685 0.450 0.449 0.230 0.150 0.500 456.6 -2.669 -1.189 0.075 0.000 0.110 0.022 -2.657 0.450 0.460 0.230 0.150 0.750 410.5 -2.401 -1.250 0.090 0.000 0.133 0.022 -2.265 0.450 0.479 0.237 0.150 1.000 400.0 -1.955 -1.209 0.090 0.000 0.150 0.022 -1.685 0.450 0.492 0.266 0.150 1.500 400.0 -1.025 -1.152 0.090 0.029 0.150 0.022 -0.570 0.450 0.511 0.307 0.150 2.000 400.0 -0.299 -1.111 0.090 0.050 0.150 0.022 0.250 0.532 0.520 0.337 0.150 3.000 400.0 0.000 -1.054 0.090 0.079 0.150 0.022 0.460 0.648 0.520 0.378 0.213 4.000 400.0 0.000 -1.014 0.090 0.100 0.150 0.022 0.460 0.700 0.520 0.407 0.258 5.000 400.0 0.000 -1.000 0.090 0.100 0.150 0.022 0.460 0.700 0.520 0.430 0.292 7.500 400.0 0.000 -1.000 0.090 0.100 0.150 0.022 0.460 0.700 0.520 0.471 0.355 10.00 400.0 0.000 -1.000 0.090 0.100 0.150 0.022 0.460 0.700 0.520 0.500 0.400 """)