Source code for openquake.hazardlib.gsim.base

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# vim: tabstop=4 shiftwidth=4 softtabstop=4
#
# Copyright (C) 2012-2022 GEM Foundation
#
# OpenQuake is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it
# under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published
# by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# OpenQuake is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
# GNU Affero General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
# along with OpenQuake. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

"""
Module :mod:`openquake.hazardlib.gsim.base` defines base classes for
different kinds of :class:`ground shaking intensity models
<GroundShakingIntensityModel>`.
"""
import sys
import abc
import inspect
import warnings
import functools
import numpy

from openquake.baselib.general import DeprecationWarning, gen_slices
from openquake.baselib.performance import compile, numba
from openquake.hazardlib import const
from openquake.hazardlib.stats import _truncnorm_sf
from openquake.hazardlib.gsim.coeffs_table import CoeffsTable
from openquake.hazardlib.contexts import (
    KNOWN_DISTANCES, full_context, ContextMaker)
from openquake.hazardlib.contexts import *  # for backward compatibility


ADMITTED_STR_PARAMETERS = ['DEFINED_FOR_TECTONIC_REGION_TYPE',
                           'DEFINED_FOR_INTENSITY_MEASURE_COMPONENT']
ADMITTED_FLOAT_PARAMETERS = ['DEFINED_FOR_REFERENCE_VELOCITY']
ADMITTED_SET_PARAMETERS = ['DEFINED_FOR_INTENSITY_MEASURE_TYPES',
                           'DEFINED_FOR_STANDARD_DEVIATION_TYPES',
                           'REQUIRES_DISTANCES',
                           'REQUIRES_ATTRIBUTES',
                           'REQUIRES_SITES_PARAMETERS',
                           'REQUIRES_RUPTURE_PARAMETERS']

ONE_MB = 1024 ** 2
registry = {}  # GSIM name -> GSIM class
gsim_aliases = {}  # GSIM alias -> TOML representation


[docs]def add_alias(name, cls, **kw): """ Add a GSIM alias to both gsim_aliases and the registry. """ text = '\n'.join('%s = %r' % it for it in kw.items()) gsim_aliases[name] = '[%s]\n%s' % (cls.__name__, text) registry[name] = cls
[docs]class NotVerifiedWarning(UserWarning): """ Raised when a non verified GSIM is instantiated """
[docs]class ExperimentalWarning(UserWarning): """ Raised for GMPEs that are intended for experimental use or maybe subject to changes in future version. """
[docs]class AdaptedWarning(UserWarning): """ Raised for GMPEs that are intended for experimental use or maybe subject to changes in future version. """
# this is the critical function for the performance of the classical calculator # the performance is dominated by the CPU cache, i.e. large arrays are slow # the only way to speedup is to reduce the maximum_distance, then the array # will become shorter in the N dimension (number of affected sites), or to # collapse the ruptures, then _compute_delta will be called less times if numba: @compile("void(float64[:, :], float64[:], float64[:, :])") def _compute_delta(mean_std, levels, out): # compute (iml - mean) / std for each level with numba N, L = out.shape for li in range(L): iml = levels[li] for si in range(N): out[si, li] = (iml - mean_std[0, si]) / mean_std[1, si] else: def _compute_delta(mean_std, levels, out): # compute (iml - mean) / std for each level with numpy for li, iml in enumerate(levels): out[:, li] = (iml - mean_std[0]) / mean_std[1] def _get_poes(mean_std, loglevels, truncation_level): # returns a matrix of shape (N, L) N = mean_std.shape[2] # shape (2, M, N) out = numpy.zeros((N, loglevels.size)) # shape (N, L) L1 = loglevels.L1 for m, imt in enumerate(loglevels): # loop needed to work on smaller matrices fitting the CPU cache slc = loglevels(imt) levels = loglevels.array[slc] if truncation_level == 0: for li, iml in enumerate(levels): out[:, m * L1 + li] = iml <= mean_std[0, m] else: _compute_delta(mean_std[:, m], levels, out[:, slc]) return _truncnorm_sf(truncation_level, out) OK_METHODS = 'compute get_mean_and_stddevs get_poes set_parameters'
[docs]def bad_methods(clsdict): """ :returns: list of not acceptable method names """ bad = [] for name, value in clsdict.items(): if name in OK_METHODS or name.startswith('__') and name.endswith('__'): pass # not bad elif inspect.isfunction(value) or hasattr(value, '__func__'): bad.append(name) return bad
[docs]class MetaGSIM(abc.ABCMeta): """ A metaclass converting set class attributes into frozensets, to avoid mutability bugs without having to change already written GSIMs. Moreover it performs some checks against typos. """ def __new__(meta, name, bases, dic): if len(bases) > 1: raise TypeError('Multiple inheritance is forbidden: %s(%s)' % ( name, ', '.join(b.__name__ for b in bases))) if 'get_mean_and_stddevs' in dic and 'compute' in dic: raise TypeError('You cannot define both get_mean_and_stddevs ' 'and compute in %s' % name) bad = bad_methods(dic) if bad: print('%s cannot contain the methods %s' % (name, bad), file=sys.stderr) for k, v in dic.items(): if isinstance(v, set): dic[k] = frozenset(v) if k == 'REQUIRES_DISTANCES': missing = v - KNOWN_DISTANCES if missing: raise ValueError('Unknown distance %s in %s' % (missing, name)) cls = super().__new__(meta, name, bases, dic) return cls
[docs]@functools.total_ordering class GroundShakingIntensityModel(metaclass=MetaGSIM): """ Base class for all the ground shaking intensity models. A Ground Shaking Intensity Model (GSIM) defines a set of equations for computing mean and standard deviation of a normal distribution representing the variability of an intensity measure (or of its logarithm) at a site given an earthquake rupture. This class is not intended to be subclassed directly, instead the actual GSIMs should subclass :class:`GMPE`. Subclasses of both must implement :meth:`get_mean_and_stddevs` and all the class attributes with names starting from ``DEFINED_FOR`` and ``REQUIRES``. """ #: Reference to a #: :class:`tectonic region type <openquake.hazardlib.const.TRT>` this GSIM #: is defined for. One GSIM can implement only one tectonic region type. DEFINED_FOR_TECTONIC_REGION_TYPE = abc.abstractproperty() #: Set of :mod:`intensity measure types <openquake.hazardlib.imt>` #: this GSIM can #: calculate. A set should contain classes from module #: :mod:`openquake.hazardlib.imt`. DEFINED_FOR_INTENSITY_MEASURE_TYPES = abc.abstractproperty() #: Reference to a :class:`intensity measure component type #: <openquake.hazardlib.const.IMC>` this GSIM can calculate mean #: and standard #: deviation for. DEFINED_FOR_INTENSITY_MEASURE_COMPONENT = abc.abstractproperty() #: Set of #: :class:`standard deviation types <openquake.hazardlib.const.StdDev>` #: this GSIM can calculate. DEFINED_FOR_STANDARD_DEVIATION_TYPES = abc.abstractproperty() #: Set of required GSIM attributes REQUIRES_ATTRIBUTES = set() #: Set of site parameters names this GSIM needs. The set should include #: strings that match names of the attributes of a :class:`site #: <openquake.hazardlib.site.Site>` object. #: Those attributes are then available in the #: :class:`SitesContext` object with the same names. REQUIRES_SITES_PARAMETERS = abc.abstractproperty() #: Set of rupture parameters (excluding distance information) required #: by GSIM. Supported parameters are: #: #: ``mag`` #: Magnitude of the rupture. #: ``dip`` #: Rupture's surface dip angle in decimal degrees. #: ``rake`` #: Angle describing the slip propagation on the rupture surface, #: in decimal degrees. See :mod:`~openquake.hazardlib.geo.nodalplane` #: for more detailed description of dip and rake. #: ``ztor`` #: Depth of rupture's top edge in km. See #: :meth:`~openquake.hazardlib.geo.surface.base.BaseSurface.get_top_edge_depth`. #: #: These parameters are available from the :class:`RuptureContext` object #: attributes with same names. REQUIRES_RUPTURE_PARAMETERS = abc.abstractproperty() #: Set of types of distance measures between rupture and sites. Possible #: values are: #: #: ``rrup`` #: Closest distance to rupture surface. See #: :meth:`~openquake.hazardlib.geo.surface.base.BaseSurface.get_min_distance`. #: ``rjb`` #: Distance to rupture's surface projection. See #: :meth:`~openquake.hazardlib.geo.surface.base.BaseSurface.get_joyner_boore_distance`. #: ``rx`` #: Perpendicular distance to rupture top edge projection. #: See :meth:`~openquake.hazardlib.geo.surface.base.BaseSurface.get_rx_distance`. #: ``ry0`` #: Horizontal distance off the end of the rupture measured parallel to # strike. See: #: See :meth:`~openquake.hazardlib.geo.surface.base.BaseSurface.get_ry0_distance`. #: ``rcdpp`` #: Direct point parameter for directivity effect centered on the site- and earthquake-specific # average DPP used. See: #: See :meth:`~openquake.hazardlib.source.rupture.ParametricProbabilisticRupture.get_dppvalue`. #: ``rvolc`` #: Source to site distance passing through surface projection of volcanic zone #: #: All the distances are available from the :class:`DistancesContext` #: object attributes with same names. Values are in kilometers. REQUIRES_DISTANCES = abc.abstractproperty() _toml = '' # set by valid.gsim superseded_by = None non_verified = False experimental = False adapted = False @classmethod def __init_subclass__(cls): stddevtypes = cls.DEFINED_FOR_STANDARD_DEVIATION_TYPES if isinstance(stddevtypes, abc.abstractproperty): # in GMPE return elif const.StdDev.TOTAL not in stddevtypes: raise ValueError( '%s.DEFINED_FOR_STANDARD_DEVIATION_TYPES is ' 'not defined for const.StdDev.TOTAL' % cls.__name__) for attr, ctable in vars(cls).items(): if isinstance(ctable, CoeffsTable): if not attr.startswith('COEFFS'): raise NameError('%s does not start with COEFFS' % attr) registry[cls.__name__] = cls def __init__(self, **kwargs): self.kwargs = kwargs cls = self.__class__ if cls.superseded_by: msg = '%s is deprecated - use %s instead' % ( cls.__name__, cls.superseded_by.__name__) warnings.warn(msg, DeprecationWarning) if cls.non_verified: msg = ('%s is not independently verified - the user is liable ' 'for their application') % cls.__name__ warnings.warn(msg, NotVerifiedWarning) if cls.experimental: msg = ('%s is experimental and may change in future versions - ' 'the user is liable for their application') % cls.__name__ warnings.warn(msg, ExperimentalWarning) if cls.adapted: msg = ('%s is not intended for general use and the behaviour ' 'may not be as expected - ' 'the user is liable for their application') % cls.__name__ warnings.warn(msg, AdaptedWarning)
[docs] def get_mean_and_stddevs(self, sites, rup, dists, imt, stddev_types): """ Calculate and return mean value of intensity distribution and it's standard deviation. Method must be implemented by subclasses. :param sites: Instance of :class:`openquake.hazardlib.site.SiteCollection` with parameters of sites collection assigned to respective values as numpy arrays. Only those attributes that are listed in class' :attr:`REQUIRES_SITES_PARAMETERS` set are available. :param rup: Instance of :class:`openquake.hazardlib.source.rupture.BaseRupture` with parameters of a rupture assigned to respective values. Only those attributes that are listed in class' :attr:`REQUIRES_RUPTURE_PARAMETERS` set are available. :param dists: Instance of :class:`DistancesContext` with values of distance measures between the rupture and each site of the collection assigned to respective values as numpy arrays. Only those attributes that are listed in class' :attr:`REQUIRES_DISTANCES` set are available. :param imt: An instance (not a class) of intensity measure type. See :mod:`openquake.hazardlib.imt`. :param stddev_types: List of standard deviation types, constants from :class:`openquake.hazardlib.const.StdDev`. Method result value should include standard deviation values for each of types in this list. :returns: Method should return a tuple of two items. First item should be a numpy array of floats -- mean values of respective component of a chosen intensity measure type, and the second should be a list of numpy arrays of standard deviation values for the same single component of the same single intensity measure type, one array for each type in ``stddev_types`` parameter, preserving the order. Combining interface to mean and standard deviation values in a single method allows to avoid redoing the same intermediate calculations if there are some shared between stddev and mean formulae without resorting to keeping any sort of internal state (and effectively making GSIM not reenterable). However it is advised to split calculation of mean and stddev values and make ``get_mean_and_stddevs()`` just combine both (and possibly compute interim steps). """ # mean and stddevs by calling the underlying .compute method N = len(sites) mean = numpy.zeros((1, N)) sig = numpy.zeros((1, N)) tau = numpy.zeros((1, N)) phi = numpy.zeros((1, N)) if sites is not rup or dists is not rup: # convert three old-style contexts to a single new-style context ctx = full_context(sites, rup, dists) else: ctx = rup # rup is already a good object if self.compute.__annotations__.get("ctx") is numpy.recarray: cmaker = ContextMaker('*', [self], {'imtls': {imt: [0]}}) ctx = cmaker.recarray([ctx]) self.compute(ctx, [imt], mean, sig, tau, phi) stddevs = [] for stddev_type in stddev_types: if stddev_type == const.StdDev.TOTAL: stddevs.append(sig[0]) elif stddev_type == const.StdDev.INTER_EVENT: stddevs.append(tau[0]) elif stddev_type == const.StdDev.INTRA_EVENT: stddevs.append(phi[0]) return mean[0], stddevs
def __lt__(self, other): """ The GSIMs are ordered according to string representation """ return str(self) < str(other) def __eq__(self, other): """ The GSIMs are equal if their string representations are equal """ return str(self) == str(other) def __hash__(self): """ We use the __str__ representation as hash: it means that we can use equivalently GSIM instances or strings as dictionary keys. """ return hash(str(self)) def __repr__(self): """ String representation for GSIM instances in TOML format. """ if self._toml: return self._toml return '[%s]' % self.__class__.__name__
[docs]def to_distribution_values(vals, imt): """ :returns: the logarithm of the values unless the IMT is MMI """ if str(imt) == 'MMI': return vals with warnings.catch_warnings(): warnings.simplefilter("ignore") return numpy.log(vals)
[docs]class GMPE(GroundShakingIntensityModel): """ Ground-Motion Prediction Equation is a subclass of generic :class:`GroundShakingIntensityModel` with a distinct feature that the intensity values are log-normally distributed. Method :meth:`~GroundShakingIntensityModel.get_mean_and_stddevs` of actual GMPE implementations is supposed to return the mean value as a natural logarithm of intensity. """
[docs] def set_parameters(self): """ Combines the parameters of the GMPE provided at the construction level with the ones originally assigned to the backbone modified GMPE. """ for key in (ADMITTED_STR_PARAMETERS + ADMITTED_FLOAT_PARAMETERS + ADMITTED_SET_PARAMETERS): try: val = getattr(self.gmpe, key) except AttributeError: pass else: setattr(self, key, val)
[docs] def compute(self, ctx, imts, mean, sig, tau, phi): """ :param ctx: a RuptureContext object or a numpy recarray of size N :param imts: a list of M Intensity Measure Types :param mean: an array of shape (M, N) for the means :param sig: an array of shape (M, N) for the TOTAL stddevs :param tau: an array of shape (M, N) for the INTER_EVENT stddevs :param phi: an array of shape (M, N) for the INTRA_EVENT stddevs To be overridden in subclasses with a procedure filling the arrays and returning None. """ raise NotImplementedError
# the ctxs are used in avg_poe_gmpe
[docs] def get_poes(self, mean_std, cmaker, ctx): """ Calculate and return probabilities of exceedance (PoEs) of one or more intensity measure levels (IMLs) of one intensity measure type (IMT) for one or more pairs "site -- rupture". :param mean_std: An array of shape (2, M, N) with mean and standard deviations for the sites and intensity measure types :param cmaker: A ContextMaker instance :param ctxs: Context objects used to compute mean_std :returns: array of PoEs of shape (N, L) :raises ValueError: If truncation level is not ``None`` and neither non-negative float number, and if ``imts`` dictionary contain wrong or unsupported IMTs (see :attr:`DEFINED_FOR_INTENSITY_MEASURE_TYPES`). """ loglevels = cmaker.loglevels truncation_level = cmaker.truncation_level N = mean_std.shape[2] # 2, M, N L = loglevels.size maxsize = int(numpy.ceil(ONE_MB / L / 8)) arr = numpy.zeros((N, L)) if truncation_level is not None and truncation_level < 0: raise ValueError('truncation level must be zero, positive number ' 'or None') if hasattr(self, 'weights_signs'): outs = [] weights, signs = zip(*self.weights_signs) for s in signs: ms = numpy.array(mean_std) # make a copy for m in range(len(loglevels)): ms[0, m] += s * ctx.adjustment outs.append(_get_poes(ms, loglevels, truncation_level)) arr[:] = numpy.average(outs, weights=weights, axis=0) elif hasattr(self, "mixture_model"): for f, w in zip(self.mixture_model["factors"], self.mixture_model["weights"]): mean_stdi = numpy.array(mean_std) # a copy mean_stdi[1] *= f # multiply stddev by factor arr[:] += w * _get_poes(mean_stdi, loglevels, truncation_level) else: # regular case # split large arrays in slices < 1 MB to fit inside the CPU cache for sl in gen_slices(0, N, maxsize): arr[sl] = _get_poes(mean_std[:, :, sl], loglevels, truncation_level) imtweight = getattr(self, 'weight', None) # ImtWeight or None for imt in loglevels: if imtweight and imtweight.dic.get(imt) == 0: # set by the engine when parsing the gsim logictree # when 0 ignore the contribution: see _build_trts_branches arr[:, loglevels(imt)] = 0 return arr